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Rock and Pop Midterm 2013.docx

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MUSI 1530
Rob Bowman

Aesthetics of Music  Embodies numerical principles and affirms laws of nature  Affirms a progressive mastery of performance techniques and sound patterns  Divided a) “True” – rational/progressive b) “Imitative” – impressionistic/reactionary  Self-contained phenomenological system - Not derived from its relation to any other reality - Identical to the principle of its own organization  Source of innocent pleasure  Manipulates conventions to product a contrived effect on the listener  No reality beyond the relationship between notes  Expresses a national/social character or ethos  Answers questions of identity  Manages the relationship between our public and private emotional lives  Shapes memory and organizes our sense of time  Something we “possess” Smallest Unit of Sound is a Hertz (Hz) – CYCLE/SECOND (cps) Characteristics of Musical Style 1) Sound:  Pitch -the smallest/most fundamental unit of sound  Timbre -how people hear unique sounds  Texture -how musical parts are combined/put together  Call/response -relationship between distinct phrases/rhythms 2) Melody: succession of pitch/main point  Phrase -length of time of an untrained/trained singer without taking a breath pause  Contour -the levels of pitch 1) ascending 2) descending 3) pendular 4) iterative (flat)  Ornamentation 1) devices used to add flourishes to a melody/harmony 2) syllable – one not/syllable 3) Harmony: 2 or more stimulus pitches  Interval -2 pitches/fundamental unit of harmony  Chord -3 or more simultaneous pitches  Chord/harmonic progression -2 or more chords heard in one succession 4) Rhythm: measurement of music in time (beats per min.)  Beat (pulse) -unit of time in a composition -point of attack = downbeat -point of release = upbeat  Tempo -the rate of BPM  Accent -emphasis placed on a specific note/pulse -e.g. backbeat – accents on 2 and 4  Groove -the interplay between 2 or more rhythms  Meter -units of pulse 1) duple: multiples of 2 (march-feel) 2) triple: multiples of 3 (waltz-feel)  Dynamics -weight of a beat (how you hit the instrument) 5) Form: most abstract/repeated and varied musical patterns  Strophic (A/A) -sequence of versus with the same melody -12 bar blues  Verse/chorus (A/B) -sequence of versus with repeated contrasting section  Da Capo (AABA) -sequence of versus with one contrasting section  Form of interplay of variation (difference) and repetition (same) * variation – we expect a structure of sameness, and something new General Function of Popular Music:  Was for entertainment only  The roles of songs were to help the listener forget the real world/problems Social Conditions of Popular Music: 1) Diffused through mass media 2) Created in and for city/urban markets 3) Organized distribution system 4) Composed on demand for financial gain 5) Profession though not highly trained 6) Star system – advertising 7) Secular music with sacred elements Pop Song characteristics: E.g. Thomas Moore Music  One octave melodic range  2-4 bar phrases  Basic harmony (I-IV-V)  Simple accompaniment  Repetitive forms -8 bars -AAA (DA CAPO ARIA) -ABAB (verse/chorus)  Dance music  -Current metric/rhythmic patterns Lyrics  Romance  Alliteration  Repetitive rhyme schemes quatrain couplet  Symmetric rhythms  Personal pronouns  1-2-3- syllable words Style History – Pop Songs  (1800) Parlor Song – pleasure Gardens  (1832) Minstrelsy – circus/theatre  (1892-1900) – Tin Pan Alley – vaudeville  (1920) Hillbilly/race recordings  (1927-1929) – Broadway/Hollywood  (1930s) Big Band – Dancehall Popular/Mainstream Key Dates -e.g. “After the ball” Charles K. Harris  represents the beginning of the industry of the big business (POP MUSIC)  1453 – moveable type printing -how books were published  1556 – copyright law -King Henry’s first wife Mary’s creation -stationery company -if an individual had proof that a document was there’s they would get a 2 year limit (copyright) and royalties  1790 – US patent/copyright laws -1) provides a public good -2) remuneration (compensation, pay)  1831 – copyright and music  1850 – sheet music -printed NOT performed or recorded music -uses modern musical symbols  1811 – first upright (parlor) piano  1863 – player piano -first instrument that was used to reproduce music  1877 – phonograph -allowed people to listen to music without knowing how to play the piano -Thomas Edison – created speaking phonographs 1) he found a way to capture music through a cylindrical wax object spin 2) with a horn hooked on 3) with a needle that would vibrate and cut grooves on the cylinder 4) needles moves across 5) if reversed the same sound would go out the horn  1887 – gramophone -a flat disk used to capture music  1909 – copyright amendments -received first copyright amendment in US (1909) -recognized 3 amendments: 1) became possible to collect money from live music 2) mechanical reproduced music – recordings 3) liberalized the copying of all music (pay for music you want to copy)  1914 – performance rights/American society of composers, author and publishers (ASCAP) -reinforces music laws made in 1914 -TIN PAN ALLEY – in NYC publishing district -named because all the music combined played throughout the same alley sounded like tin pans -Victor Perbert – group of musicians played his song so the restaurant was obligated to pay him & he organized a movement for ‘their’ right to collect money that artists are entitled too  1920 – radio Structure of the Music Industry (1914) Charles Seeger: Terms  Acculturation -values from your families, church, institutions etc. -e.g. why are we in class? We were told at a young age that we need an education -values passed through time -adapting to a culture that you live in  Sub acculturation -transference of values between classes -we build ways of looking at the world -language is a marker of status -e.g. “I am not going to Joe’s eatery I am going to Joe’s bistro”  Counter acculturation -where you try to stop change from happening -e.g. censorship – if there is a threat the government will try and stop it -passes laws to stop things from happening  1800 – Make America Musical -Lowell Mason – Boston Handel, Hayden Society -effort to raise musical standards of America -e.g. orchestras, choral societies, education systems -fought the gender indifference towards music  1840 – sell America music -new music industry is made to satisfy the middle-brow -disagreement over what was good music, NOT what was bad  Serious music -e.g. classical music -traditional genre of music  Popular music -music appealing to the popular taste -music that sells  Folk music -music that originates in traditional popular culture -music that is written in such a ‘style’ Charles Seeger, “Music & Class Structure in the US” (1977)  Sub acculturation involves the ‘taking’ class must add something of its own to the ‘taken from’  Commercial recordings were flourished to dramatize  Hillbilly, commercial, jazz, country and western old timey improved their early stage sounds -by gaining popularity they created new popular music LARGE SCALE SOCIAL/HISTORICAL FORCES  Acculturation  Sub acculturation  Enculturation  Counter acculturation *Focus is on Sub Acculturation 3 SOCIAL GROUPS DEFINED BY MUSICAL IDIOM  Folk art (oral transmission) rural peasant-working-class  Fine art (written transmission) elite/ruling class  Popular art (hybrid oral vs. written) middle class COLONIAL-ERA (1800)  Struggle between neo-class structure and classless equalitarian society  Emergence of singing schools (the great awakening)  British (regularized) Hymns vs. Shape-Note Hymns  Emergence of first-native-born American composers (William Billings GROWTH OF THE MINSTREL SHOW (Dan Emmett/Stephen Foster)  The most significant form of homespun entertainment (1870s) CONCERT SPIRITUAL  Hailed by MAM and SAM as America’s only original folk music (1900) RAPID GROWTH OF US CITIES  Advent of mechanical projection of music  Transformation of MAM and SAM (1907) DEMAND FOR POPULAR MUSIC IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM (1920) EXPANSION OF RECORDING CATALOGUES – FOLK MUSIC (Hillbilly and Race)  SAM never gave back exactly what it had taken  Recorded music becomes more ‘product’ oriented (clear beginnings, endings, precision in musical execution, diction, etc.) CONCLUSIONS  A single integrated musical vernacular  Vast quantity of music is available to almost everyone (concerns with general musicality)  Relationship to culture is mediated by administrative structures (conglomerate mergers) Theodor Adorno “Popular Music” (1962)  Defined by standardization  Pop songs  stick to a rigid pattern  Serious songs  free creation (to do what you want)  Rule of American practice consists of 32 bars, with a “bridge:, a part initiating repetition in the middle  Standardized songs: celebrating joys, nonsense, break ups, etc  Ballads -metric/harmonic focus of any pop song -standard outline that must be followed through the beginning and end General Characteristics (Hillbilly/Country) 1) Verbal art passed down from generation to generation 2) Transmitted orally/aurally 3) Flourishes in both rural and urban contexts 4) Folk memory may corrupt what it retains 5) Preserved both consciously and unconsciously Anglo Celtic Ballads -SACRED (RELIGION), SECULAR (CULTURAL) Religious (Sacred) Music 1545-1562 COUNCIL OF TRENT (PRECENTOR LINED HYMN)  (1640) Bay Psalter -First book published in North America -Guide Me, O Thou Great Jehovah” (cd 1:15)  (1740-1800) GREAT AWAKENING - rivals between evangelical and Baptist Christianity  SINGING SCHOOLS -improve musicality in the US -singing schools were introduced -“Lisbon” (CD 1:16)  (1798) SHAPE-NOTE HYMNS (William Smith/William Little) -musical
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