ORGS 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Relational Contract, Human Resource Management, Job Satisfaction

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Published on 6 Jul 2016
School
York University
Department
Organization Studies
Course
ORGS 1000
ORGS 1000 Midterm Notes
Chapter 1: What Is Organizational Behaviour?
Organizational behaviour is a field of study to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving
the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations
Human resources management is a field of study that focuses on the applications of OB theories and
principles in organizations
Strategic management is a field of study devoted to exploring the product choices and industry
characteristics that affect an organization's profitability
Scientific management (Fredrick Taylor) involves using scientific methods to design optimal and
efficient work processes and tasks
Bureaucracy (Max Weber) is an organizational form that emphasizes the control and coordination of its
members through (1) a strict chain of command, (2) formal rules and procedures, (3) high specialization,
and (4) centralized decision making
Human relations movement is a field of study that recognizes that the psychical attributes of individual
workers and the social forces within work groups have important effects on work behaviours
The two primary outcomes in organizational behaviour are job performance and organizational
commitment
A number of factors affect performance and commitment, including
Individual mechanisms
- Job satisfactionwhat employees feel when thinking about their jobs and doing their day-to-
day work
- Stressemployees' psychological responses to job demands that tax or exceed their capacities
- Motivationthe energetic forces that drive employees' work effort
- Trust, Justice, and Ethicsthe degree to which employees feel that their company conducts
business with fairness, honesty, and integrity
- Learning and decision makinghow employees gain knowledge and how they use that
knowledge to make accurate judgments on the job
Individual characteristics
- Personality, cultural values and ability
Group mechanisms
- Team characteristics, diversity, processes, and communication
- Power, influence, and negotiation
- Leader styles and behaviours
Organizational mechanisms
- Organizational structureevery company has an organizational structure that dictates how the
units within the firm link to (and coordinate with) other units
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ORGS 1000 Midterm Notes
- Organizational culture and changesometimes structures are centralized around a decision-
making authority; other times, structures are decentralized, affording each unit some autonomy
The effective management of OB can help a company become more profitable because good people are
a valuable resource
A resource-based view is a model that argues that rare and inimitable resources help firms
maintain competitive advantage
Rarein short supply
Inimitableincapable of bring imitated or copied
Not only are good people rare, but they are also hard to imitate
People create a history that cannot be bought or copied, they make numerous small decisions that
cannot be observed by competitors, and they create socially complex resources such as culture,
teamwork, trust, and reputation
The effective management of OB requires a belief that several different practices are important, along
with a long-term commitment to improving those practices
The rule of one-eighth is the belief that at best one-eighth, or 12 percent, of organizations will
actually do what is required to build profits by putting people first
The Scientific Method
The scientific method begins with a theorya collection of verbal and
symbolic assertions that specify how and why variables are related, as
well as the conditions in which they should (and should not) be
related
Theories about organizational behaviour are build from a combination
of interviews, observation, research reviews, and reflection
Hypotheses are written predictions that specify relationships between variables
Theories form the beginning point for the scientific method and inspire hypotheses that can be
tested with data
A correlation is a statistic that expresses the strength of a relationship between two variables (ranging
from 0 to 1)
In OB research, a .50 correlation is considered "strong"
In OB research, a .30 correlation is considered "moderate"
In OB research, a .10 correlation is considered "weak"
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ORGS 1000 Midterm Notes
Chapter 2: Job Performance
Job performance is the set of employee behaviours that contribute either positively or negatively to the
accomplishment of organizational goals
Task performance includes employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of
organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces
Routine task performances are well-known or habitual responses by employees to predictable
task demands
Adaptive task performances are thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task
demands
Creative task performances is the degree to which individuals develop ideas or physical
outcomes that are both novel and useful
A job analysis is a process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs
1. A list of all the activities involved in a job is generated
2. Each activity on this list is rated by "subject matter experts" according to things like importance
and frequency of the activity
3. The activities that are rated highly in terms of their importance and frequency are retained and
used to define task performance
The National Occupational Classification (NOC) is a national database of occupations in Canada,
organizing over 30,000 job titles into 520 occupation group descriptions
Organizations gather information about relevant task duties using job analysis and the NOC
Citizenship behaviours are voluntary employee behaviours that contribute to organizational goals by
improving the context in which work takes place
Interpersonal citizenship behaviours involves going beyond normal job expectations to assist,
support, and develop co-workers and colleagues
Helping involves assisting co-workers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with personal
matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they are first on the job
Courtesy involves sharing important information with co-workers
Sportsmanship involves maintaining a positive attitude with co-workers through good and bad
times
Organizational citizenship behaviour involves going beyond normal expectations to improve
operations of the organization, as well as defending the organization and being loyal to it
Voice involves speaking up to offer constructive suggestions for change, often in reaction to a
negative work event
Civic virtue involves participating in company operations at a deeper-than-normal level through
voluntary meetings, readings, and keeping up with news that affects the company
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Document Summary

Organizational behaviour is a field of study to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations. Human resources management is a field of study that focuses on the applications of ob theories and principles in organizations. Strategic management is a field of study devoted to exploring the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization"s profitability. Scientific management (fredrick taylor) involves using scientific methods to design optimal and efficient work processes and tasks. Bureaucracy (max weber) is an organizational form that emphasizes the control and coordination of its members through (1) a strict chain of command, (2) formal rules and procedures, (3) high specialization, and (4) centralized decision making. Human relations movement is a field of study that recognizes that the psychical attributes of individual workers and the social forces within work groups have important effects on work behaviours. The two primary outcomes in organizational behaviour are job performance and organizational commitment.

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