Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
York (10,000)
POLS (300)
Midterm

POLS 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: French Revolution, Cleisthenes, Civil Disobedience


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1000
Professor
Martin Breaugh
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
! of !1 8
POLS 1000 Midterm Exam Review
Explain how democracy developed in Ancient Athens by identifying the main
protagonists, the democratic reforms, and the progress for democracy that the reforms
represent.
-First experience of democracy in Ancient Athens in context of Greek Civilization - birth of
democracy and rise of a political community known later as the city-state
-Begins as an aristocracy and slowly develops into a democracy
-Greeks discovered an equilibrium between citizens on one hand and the community (polis)
on the other
-Political participation in community = essential to expressing oneself, developing personal
identity
-Polis - local association created with aims to achieve common security - make life of the
community and the citizen excellent
-Athenian polis will not only be a set of institutions - but a way of life in which the individual
defines himself by way of political participation
-Initially, citizenship limited to Athenian males
-City-states - relatively small political units - smallness reinforced participation - economic self-
sufficiency
-Democracy developed in the polis due to 2 explosive, controversial ideas over time
-1) We all know enough to decide how to govern our public life
-2) No one person/group of people knows enough to take away our right to govern
-At its origins in 8th century B.C.E., Athenian polis was aristocratic - called upon the best to
govern
-Transformation from rule of the few to rule of the many - difficult transition - people who hold
power rarely want to let it go
-2 social forces (excluded from political life in Athens) will push for democracy in 7th and 6th
century - merchant class and peasants - political changes usually occur when excluded parts
of society decide they want to be included
-Merchants and peasants will mobilize the principle of equality that was limited to aristocratic
classes - want part of this equality - demands for greater justice and political participation
-Merchants - favoured from the introduction of money and development of new tools -
accumulation of wealth quickly catches up to wealth of aristocratic classes - but had no
political power - merchant class will be called upon to defend Athens when they go to war
-Hoplite formation - amount paid for by soldier - will assure a supremacy of Athens - fighting
for freedom of Athens and paying for own armour - but no participation in political life, thus
tensions arise
-Peasants - small farmers, unsure of their relationship with aristocratic classes - some
peasants participated in hoplite military organization - peasants who owed money to certain
aristocratic families could be enslaved if they did not pay their debts
-Merchants had wealth that rivalled that of the aristocrats, defended Athens in wars - but could
not take part in political matters
-Conflict and strife
-In order to resolve conflicts between social forces, Athenians will create two new types of
politicians - will have the power to resolve the conflict in the polis and avoid outbreak of civil
war - both are statesmen, working selflessly for common good - own self-interest and interest
of their social class/aristocratic families are kept in check
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

! of !2 8
-Legislator - citizen impartial to raging conflicts in the polis - elevated above the conflict in
order to create new piece of legislation capable of resolving the conflict and avoid outbreak of
civil war - once new legislation is enacted, legislator would resign powers - would leave polis
and no longer partake in political life of Athens
-Social origins of the legislator - all Aristocrats, but were fair - resolved conflict in impartial
matter
-Draco - lawgiver - codifies the laws of Athens - the first to do so; before Draco, the law was
tradition and custom controlled and determined by Aristocrats - legal decisions would favour
the Aristocrats, but Draco codifying the laws diminishes their power - Draco establishes
harsh, unforgiving codified laws - sets in motion a process leading to establishment of
democracy
-Solon becomes next great legislator - abolishes slavery for debts to help peasants who were
indebted to aristocratic classes - economic reforms - will divide Athens into different classes
of property owners, each with different political rights and responsibilities - for the first time,
aristocrats will have to share power with wealthy merchants, coinciding within these new
decisions of classes
-Reforms will not be final step towards democracy - dilutes power of aristocracy but not fully -
conflict and strife within city-state continues and figure of the Tyrant emerges
-Tyrant - citizen raised above the conflict, but not in order to put forward a piece of legislation
as a legislator - rather, the tyrant is the people’s choice, not the aristocrats, in order to govern
to the people’s needs - takes power away from the few (aristocrats) and replaces it with his
own rule
-Tyrant is illegal - no formal elections - authority is drawn by the undemocratically expressed
will of the people - authority will not rest upon institutions and traditions of the aristocratic
polis
-Term “tyrant” did not have negative connotations like today
-Pisistratus - wanted everybody to partake in cultural life of Athens - before, culture was an
affair of the few - becomes an affair of everyone, notably now the peasants
-Legitimacy was conferred by the fact that many peasants/merchants were pleased to have
Pisistratus rule, despite illegally
-Sparta - arch-enemy of Athens - forces Athenians to accept rule of aristocracy again - brings
forth Kleisthenes, another great legislator
-Kleisthenes - most important legislator - brings forth political stability and democracy to
Athens - Kleisthenes will extend citizenship beyond aristocracy and property owning class -
all men having attained age of majority and are free (not slaves) and are from Athens
considered to be citizens - no land owning requirements in this definition of citizenship - thus
poor people partaking in political life
-Reforms create new tribes/demes replacing aristocratic families/demes - made up of cross-
sections of Athens - rich and poor, urban and rural, diverse people together in new artificial
demes - exercise political power together, engage in political and military life together - leads
directly to democracy - reduces power of aristocratic political institutions of Athens
-Isonomy - equality before the law and equal participation in creation of the law - marks the
transition to democracy
-Political expression of this equality found in the institution of the Assembly
-No elected representatives, no members of parliaments, PMs or presidents
-Citizens of Athens convened to the Assembly to discuss and vote for proposed laws - all
citizens could attend
-To encourage participation - 5th century - polis began monetarily compensating participants
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

! of !3 8
-Lot system - protected against demagogues and corruption - true democratic experience
because it can elect anyone and everyone
-Rotation of people holding office
-The most successful political experience in terms of participation of its citizens to the
government in all of humankind
Explain how each of the modern revolutions (English, French, and American) put consent
as the foundation of political legitimacy.
-Democracy in modern times reappears thanks to revolution - modern democratic revolutions
leading to modern representative democracy.
-No longer characterized by lottery system - modern democracies are in full knowledge and
acceptance of electoral system.
-ENGLISH REVOLUTION!
Religious conflict and political conflict
-Charles the First - politically authoritarian, ruled by virtue of divine right - attempts to rule as
an absolute monarch and powers will not be limited by institutions in place
-Divine right theory of kingship - king’s authority comes directly from God
-Puritan revolt and Oliver Cromwell - problem with divine right theory of kingship = destroyed
all appeals to the law - erodes property rights and personal rights
-High point of English revolution - execution of the King - Cromwell establishes republican
government in England known as the Commonwealth - Cromwell also authoritarian, ran
England as any dictator would
-Following Cromwell’s death - Charles the Second reclaims throne
-Legacy of first English revolution has more to do with New Model Army than with revolt
-Contribution of democracy in English revolution has to do with what’s going on in New Model
Army - first mass democratic army - will represent a break with tradition links between the
army and the king
-Conflict between two divisions between conservatives and common soldiers in New Model
Army - Putney Debates
-According to grandies (conservatives) and Cromwell - the right to vote, if given to all,
regardless of property ownership, would lead to anarchy
-Levelers/common soldiers - argue they deserve the right to vote, if only because of their war
service - similar to Athens, restricting political participation to people willing to die for their
country makes no sense
-Necessary for citizens to give CONSENT to government - voting is a way of indicating
consent
-Not just anybody could participate in political life - one had to have permanent fixed interest
(property)
-Modern democracy will need consent of people, but people will have to be distinguished in
terms of property ownership and wealth
-Recourse to elections allow both of these to occur - a vote is cast therefore consent is given,
but elections have tendency to elect same types of distinguished people by wealth and
property
-Lottery system does not allow one to express consent as clearly as election
-Elites have tended to be in representative government since beginning
-According to Manin - consent is key for expression of election - lot does not need consent for
who is in power and everyone has equal chance
-Consent is important for political legitimacy - people consent to the state’s power
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version