PSYC 2110 (Developmental Psychology) - ALL LECTURE NOTES, TEST OUTLINE/INFO, GRAPHS, KEY TERMS.docx

349 views52 pages
Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2110
Professor
1
LECTURE 1
Research Methods
- Lab research (can manipulate the variables)
- Naturalistic research (observe behaviour)
- Experimental research (highly controlled)
- Correlational research (no cause/effect)
o Study cause/effect by random group/sample assignment (in experimental/control groups)
- Theory guided research (should choose appropriate design; questionnaires might not be appropriate for all ages)
- Atheoretical Research
Sampling Strategies
- Cross section research
- Longitudinal research
- Case studies
3 types of reliability
- Test-retest reliability
- Interrater reliability
- Consistency/reliability across subjects/children = generalized reliability
Behavioural Genetics
Gregor Mendel 1865-1900 (19th century monk)
- Creative notion = idea of not averaging the traits from the mother/father in the offspring
- Offspring didn’t indicate average of traits of parents
- Males are males; not average of female/males
- Transmitted discretely from one generation to the other
- Took a group of tall flowers / short flowers and cross fertilized
o TT x tt 100% looks tall [1st generation dominant T gene; phenotype would look the same but
genotype is different]
o Tt x Tt 1 (short): 3 (tall) [2nd generation mostly dominated by genotype)
TT (tall) + Tt (tall) + tT (tall) + tt (short)
Phenotype = characteristics that individual portrays (what they look like; observational feature)
Genotype = genetic composition responsible for that phenotype
Phenotype Vs Genotype
- Some genes are dominant genes (T), some genes are recessive genes, only be obvious from
phenotype/appearance if there were 2 recessive genes
- If there’s 1 dominant gene, that will be expressed in genotype, therefore looks tall
- Phenotype can be influenced by the environment
- Genes set a potential/limits; but environment determines if those limits are achieved
Dominant Vs Recessive Genes
- Dominant genetic attribute = dark hair, curly hair, normal sight (normal colour vision), normal blood (RH+
factor), Huntington disease (dementia; random jerking movements express symptoms in middle age)
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 52 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2
o On the type of chromosome #4 (hard to get to)
- Recessive genetic attribute = red/light hair, straight hair, blue eyes, haemophilia, patch-baldness, colour
blindness, diabetes, some forms of childhood muscular dystrophy
- Most are determined by polygenetic (by number of genes which influence in an additive way)
Homozygous Vs Heterozygous
- Ex: TT (only dominant gene) tt (only recessive gene) Tt (heterozygous)
Polygenetic
- Influenced by many different genes
- Should be normally distributed in the population
o Mean median mode are the same point (the line right in the middle, divide frequency in half)
o -1Standard Deviation - +1SD = 68%
o Mean +1SD = 34%
o -2SD +2SD = 95%
o >+2SD = 2.5%
o Y = characteristic frequency
- Ex: knowledge is polygenetic
The Human Genome Project
- 100 thousands genes of human in DNA
- Want to find location, chemical composition, sequence, what they are contributed to, what their function
- No 100 000 genes, 20-30 thousand genes
- Genes are responsible for alzemeir, schizophrenia, manic depression, breast cancer, psychological tendency to
follow orders, to male homosexuality
- There are a lot of ethical considerations in this project
- You carry the gene doesn’t mean you will have the outcome
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
Sex Determination
- 23 pairs of chromosome of human cell
Autosomes
- 1st 22 pairs are called autosomes
- 23rd pair contains the sex hormone
- Every normal female has 2 X chromosome; Every normal male as 1 X 1 Y chromosome
Mitosis / Meiosis
Fertilization
Conception
- When sperm penetrates the ovum/egg of a female
- Result of ovum penetrated of sperm = zygote
Zygote
- Half sperm carries X chromosome; half sperm carries Y chromosome
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 52 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
3
- Sperms carried by X chromosome are a bit larger (larger head)
- Sperms carried by Y chromosome have shorter tails (faster swimmers)
- For every 100 female conceived, 160 males are conceived
- By birth, for 100 girls that are born, only 105 males are born
- Male is more likely to suffer from miscarriage; have higher death rates and shorter life spans
- By adolescence, for every 100 females, there are 100 males
- Artificial semindation can determine sex of a child (but consider ethical consideration)
- Technology can separate the X or Y chromosome of a sperm
- Why males are more easily to encounter early problems?
o Y chromosome (an arm missing from the chromosome that forms look like an X)
o If gene placed in 4th arm of the X chromosome, there are no counter parts in the Y chromosome (missing
arm)
o If something wrong happens to the 4th arm of X chromosome, no other way to generate that gene from
the Y (therefore guys are more fragile)
o The missing support of the Y chromosome make male fetus more fragile
o X chromosomes that don’t have a match from Y chromosome = sex-link genes
o Traits that they demonstrate in phenotype = sex-link traits
- A recessive gene (tt) which normally would be repressed by a dominant gene in a pair, would be expressed in
the phenotype if it is a sex-link gene or if it’s a male
Sex Linked Disorder
(1) haemophilia (bleeder disorder)
- Deficiency in blood plasma (needed for blood clotting)
- Won’t heal if person gets a cut
- Genetically present in the royal family of Europe, Russia, Germany
- Royal families marry with non royals now to get rid of this disorder
(2) red-green colour blindness
- Male are more frequently experienced
- Female to be colour blind; inherent colour blindness gene from both parent
- male to be colour blind, only inherent the color blindness gene from the mother (on the X chromosome, not Y)
(3) Duchene type muscular dystrophy
Congenital Vs Inherited
Genetic Disorders
Chromosome Anomaly
- Down Syndrome (Trisome 21, Mongolism)
- Usually have narrowed slanted eyes, flat nose, extra fold of skin on the eyelid, small round head, small mouth
with droopy corner, thick tongue, short finger, poor muscle tone, always have an IQ of <50 (normal = 100; SD of
15) congenital heart defect, shorter life span
- When chromosome pair 21 appears as triplet, instead of a pair
- Individuals have 47 chromosomes, as opposed to 46
- Occur during cell division, when cell don’t divide (non-disjunction)
o Appears to be related to maternal age
o As women get older, tendency to difficulty of non disjunction
o Overall = 1/660 births. <29 = 1/3000. 45+ = 1/40
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 52 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Correlational research (no cause/effect: study cause/effect by random group/sample assignment (in experimental/control groups) Theory guided research (should choose appropriate design; questionnaires might not be appropriate for all ages) Creative notion = idea of not averaging the traits from the mother/father in the offspring. Offspring didn"t indicate average of traits of parents. Males are males; not average of female/males. Transmitted discretely from one generation to the other. Tt (tall) + tt (tall) + tt (tall) + tt (short) Phenotype = characteristics that individual portrays (what they look like; observational feature) Genotype = genetic composition responsible for that phenotype. Some genes are dominant genes (t), some genes are recessive genes, only be obvious from phenotype/appearance if there were 2 recessive genes. If there"s 1 dominant gene, that will be expressed in genotype, therefore looks tall. Genes set a potential/limits; but environment determines if those limits are achieved.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.