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PSYC 2110
Maxine Wintre

LECTURE 1 Research Methods Lab research can manipulate the variablesNaturalistic research observe behaviourExperimental research highly controlledCorrelational research no causeeffect o Study causeeffect by random groupsample assignment in experimentalcontrol groupsTheory guided research should choose appropriate design questionnaires might not be appropriate for all agesAtheoretical Research Sampling StrategiesCross section researchLongitudinal researchCase studies3 types of reliabilityTestretest reliability Interrater reliability Consistencyreliability across subjectschildrengeneralized reliabilityBehavioural Genetics thGregor Mendel 18651900 19 century monk Creative notionidea of not averaging the traits from the motherfather in the offspring Offspring didnt indicate average of traits of parents Males are males not average of femalemalesTransmitted discretely from one generation to the otherTook a group of tall flowersshort flowers and cross fertilized sto TT x tt100 looks tall 1 generationdominant T gene phenotype would look the same but genotype is different ndo Tt x Tt1 short 3 tall 2 generationmostly dominated by genotypeTT tallTt talltT talltt shortPhenotypecharacteristics that individual portrays what they look like observational featureGenotypegenetic composition responsible for that phenotypePhenotype Vs GenotypeSome genes are dominant genes T some genes are recessive genes only be obvious from phenotypeappearance if there were 2 recessive genes If theres 1 dominant gene that will be expressed in genotype therefore looks tall Phenotype can be influenced by the environmentGenes set a potentiallimits but environment determines if those limits are achieved Dominant Vs Recessive GenesDominant genetic attributedark hair curly hair normal sight normal colour vision normal blood RH factor Huntington disease dementia random jerking movementsexpress symptoms in middle age1 o On the type of chromosome 4 hard to get toRecessive genetic attributeredlight hair straight hair blue eyes haemophilia patchbaldness colour blindness diabetes some forms of childhood muscular dystrophy Most are determined by polygenetic by number of genes which influence in an additive way Homozygous Vs HeterozygousEx TT only dominant gene tt only recessive geneTt heterozygousPolygenetic Influenced by many different genesShould be normally distributed in the populationo Mean median mode are the same point the line right in the middle divide frequency in halfo 1Standard Deviation1SD68 o Mean1SD34 o 2SD2SD95 o 2SD25 o Ycharacteristic frequencyEx knowledge is polygeneticThe Human Genome Project100 thousands genes of human in DNAWant to find location chemical composition sequence what they are contributed to what their functionNo 100 000 genes 2030 thousand genes Genes are responsible for alzemeir schizophrenia manic depression breast cancer psychological tendency to follow orders to male homosexualityThere are a lot of ethical considerations in this projectYoucarry the gene doesnt mean you will have the outcomeDNAdeoxyribonucleic acidSex Determination23 pairs of chromosome of human cell Autosomes st 1 22 pairs are called autosomes rd 23 pair contains the sex hormone Every normal female has 2 X chromosome Every normal male as 1 X 1 Y chromosomeMitosisMeiosisFertilization Conception When sperm penetrates the ovumegg of a female Result of ovum penetrated of spermzygoteZygoteHalf sperm carries X chromosome half sperm carries Y chromosome2Sperms carried by X chromosome are a bit larger larger head Sperms carried by Y chromosome have shorter tails faster swimmers For every 100 female conceived 160 males are conceived By birth for 100 girls that are born only 105 males are born Male is more likely to suffer from miscarriage have higher death rates and shorter life spans By adolescence for every 100 females there are 100 malesArtificial semindation can determine sex of a child but consider ethical considerationTechnology can separate the X or Y chromosome of a sperm Why males are more easily to encounter early problemso Y chromosome an arm missing from the chromosome that forms look like an X tho If gene placed in 4 arm of the X chromosome there are no counter parts in the Y chromosome missing arm tho If something wrong happens to the 4 arm of X chromosome no other way to generate that gene from the Y therefore guys are more fragileo The missing support of the Y chromosome make male fetus more fragileo X chromosomes that dont have a match from Y chromosomesexlink geneso Traits that they demonstrate in phenotypesexlink traits A recessive gene tt which normally would be repressed by a dominant gene in a pair would be expressed in the phenotype if it is a sexlink gene or if its a maleSex Linked Disorder1 haemophilia bleeder disorderDeficiency in blood plasma needed for blood clotting Wont heal if person gets a cut Genetically present in the royal family of Europe Russia Germany Royal families marry with non royals now to get rid of this disorder2 redgreen colour blindnessMale are more frequently experienced Female to be colour blind inherent colour blindness gene from both parentmale to be colour blind only inherent the color blindness gene from the mother on the X chromosome not Y3 Duchene type muscular dystrophyCongenital Vs InheritedGenetic DisordersChromosome AnomalyDown Syndrome Trisome 21 Mongolism Usually have narrowed slanted eyes flat nose extra fold of skin on the eyelid small round head small mouth with droopy corner thick tongue short finger poor muscle tone always have an IQ of 50 normal100 SD of 15 congenital heart defect shorter life span When chromosome pair 21 appears as triplet instead of a pairIndividuals have 47 chromosomes as opposed to 46Occur during cell division when cell dont divide nondisjunctiono Appears to be related to maternal age o As women get older tendency to difficulty of non disjunctiono Overall1660 births 2913000 45140 3
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