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PSYC 2210 (5)


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York University
PSYC 2210
Anthony Nield

1LECTURE 2 NOTESCant observe someone else and expect they are doing the same things as we are We have complex mental liveswe create good rationales explanations for our behaviourWe do things that we arent entirely aware of visual fields for split brain peopleAnthropomorphismobserve someone or something else the reason they are doing is the same reason as youEven though the animal you observe is doing for a specific reason doesnt mean other animal will do the sameInsects stay under the rock because they have o 1 negative photo taxismovegrow away from sun Alternative insects stay out of light because kinesisactive when theres light passive when its dark Behaviourismstudy behaviour and conditions that produce the behaviour o Dont assume internal working physiologynervous system that is responsible for all behaviour o Interested of what behaviour is build in or what is learned Behaviour is sometimes not flexible toads retina sockets are switched backward 180 degrees will shoot the same direction to get the fly but if sockets switched downward will shoot tongue to the wrong direction Learningreversible change of behaviour due to experience but some arent reversibleo Cats with severe eyes damage early will not learn to see if pass the sensitive periodo Cynader during development theres competition between parts in the nervous system o What was happening back of the brain receives visual infoo Nervous system whenever sensation is coming from opposite side of the brain is responsible for processing everything pass through in the middle of the braino 1 part of the brain is responsible for 1 part of the visual part of the world o If cover right side visual field left eye connects all of the right side visual field as represented in the actions in the braino Our brain is not deprived of stimulationdevelopmental plasticity change in behavioural potentialnot reversible because your right eye cant see your left eye takes over to the right side visual field too o Behaviour due to EXPERIENCE it is NOT REVERSIBLE Cannon if salamander can learn to swim they can swim within few days One alternative to learning ismaturationo With time nervous system develops regardless of experienceo They are wired to swim let their nervous system to be mature enough to be able to swim NOT EXPERIENCE Fatiguedoing things repeatedly but over time gets tired and stop the behaviour changes in timeo REVERSIBLE get tired dont do it and stop to rest But later will do it againBehaviour is flexible and adaptive Adaptive nature of behaviour is why it is possible for new environments to be inhabited by creatures from a different one Descartes people had free will had a soul that can control their behaviour o Recognized animals have similar characteristicso Body is like a machine your soul contacts your machine o Concept of free willconcept of sin if yo know what you are doing you can choose to behave well or badly o Mechanical parts were controlled by the pineal gland in the braintop of the heado Pineal gland receives info from your soul manages to pump things into your muscleo Hydraulic theoryfluid is moving through your body making your body parts to expandcontracto Soul controls what you do body is mechanical Reflexionimmediate response reflex Reflex behaviourtellar reflex tap your tellar tendon in knee it jumps up do it to see if its too bigo Brain inhibits it from doing too vigorously Reflex are useful and adaptivereflex in knee relates to gravity maintain ourselves upright Its a muscle stretch2 Arm reflex is set by the spinal cord nothing in the soul Stimulus Motor Spinal cordPinna reflex in catsif cat asleep and tickle his ear ears will start twitching If keeps touching head will twitch If keeps touching back leg will kick to touch his earRecruitmentintensity builds more body parts is incorporate to respond See it in infants who havent learned anything yet o Touch the centre of the palm fingers curl upoccurs right away after birtho If touch their cheeks mouth turns towards there to get food o Walking reflexpick them up in armpits they will have walking movements coordinated by spinal cords similar to doghorse o Spinal cord is coordinated to walk with arm and leg opposite taken care of automaticallyHabituationreflex can change Occurs when unimportant stimulus which normally elicit you to responds is repeated behaviour will decreaseo NONASSOCIATIVE LEARNINGlearning not to respond to something unimportant or insignificanto Ex startle reflexafter done it number of timesSensory adaptationhabituated sensory stimulus getting used to the train noiseo Internal arousal system not getting angry or annoyed anymore Used to it when it doesnt happen it can be alarmingKandel how habituation occurso Dendritesense organother neuronmuscleo Tested in a squidmyeline sheath around neuronUsed an aplysia to look at habituation If touch the mantle shelf the gill shutscloses downo Habituated if touch them softly repeatedlyo Induction in transmission down the sensory neuron less neuron transmitters o Receptors receive neuron transmitter triggered by it in responseo Can be failure of receptors or failure of transmitter or failure of motormuscle fatigueo Not motormuscle fatigue if change the intensity of touch reflex will changeo Direct wiring systemstimuluswiringresponse Aplysia has 100 connections in this reflex in human there are 1000 synapseso At synapse between 2 neurons theres a change in the chemical make up less transmitter was released as habituation continueso At the end of sensory axon leading to a motor responseo Sensorymotor The cut is whereoccursHabituation decreases in shutting down the gill We can shock aplysias tail then the behaviour starts all over again DISHABITUATION
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