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Sosc 1000 Exam Review1.txt

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

Sosc 1000 Exam Review Renata Tabori 1. Luddism is one of the biggest resistance of workers who feared that new techn ology will diminish employment. This movement began in 1811 and finished in 1817 . Workers who protested against Industrial Revolution were called Luddites. They feared technology, opposed technical changes, and acted in self-defense by dest roying machines. ▯ This is not the only movement of workers. Similar resistance of workers was held between 1780 and 1840 where workers protested against child labour and bad work ing conditions which was also seen in Luddism. ▯ This relates to the theme of taking a look from the bottom up. Jeremy Rifkin tri es to take a look from the lens of the Luddites in order to describe why the lud dites were against the rise of technology in oppose to looking from the lens of modern society. He found that the reason the Luddites were against technology wa s not because they were primitive but because they were afraid that technology c ould be destructive. This also relates to the theme of ideology. Rifkin proves t hat Ideology shapes history and history shapes ideology when discussing how tech nological determinism has had an effect on the past, the present, and the future of civilization. This was a recurring theme from Howard Zinn in the Columbus st ory. 2. Race as social construct means that people are socially divided into differen t categories. All humans belong to a single biological species called homo sapie ns, therefore, race is a social and not biological construct. However, some peop le argue that race is biologically constructed so, this topic is opened to the d ebate. ▯ Race as social construct can be related to sexuality because there are also a lo t of debate regarding if sexuality is something that people are born with (medic alization of sexuality) or if it is something that people choose. So, according to those who say that race is a social construct we can say that humans are biol ogically the same but socially different. 3. Perspective Technology invokes a division of labour where doing something is divided into different steps. Each step is done by worker or group of workers wh o are isolated from other workers performing different steps. ▯ This division of labour can be related to alienation that were also studied in t he course earlier. Perspective technology involves four sources of alienation th at includes capitalists, alienation from other workers, self-alienation, and ali enation from product. 5. Violent Masculinity is a concept of tough, strong, and powerful- real man in troduced by Jackson Katz in the movie Tough Guise. This image of real man is oft en presented to young men through media where they see that being violent is nor mal. Because of this wrong characteristics of real man, young people perform vio lently which in turn increases the levels of violence, murder, and abuse. ▯ It can be compared to sex in traditional society that was studied earlier in the course. Traditionally real man was the one who was physically strong, clever, s tubborn, and one who can provide for his family. Violence however, was not a cha racteristic of real man. We can see this transformation of real man even through toys for boys. Katz explains how boys' toys such as soldiers or super heroes ar e made more masculine than in the past which can also influence violent masculin ity of boys in their early years. ▯ This video relates to the Muschinsky reading because they both talk about the wa ys in which the individual is capable of deconstructing the ideas of sex raised in our society. One of these ways is by understanding that these ideologies are not natural and shaped by hegemonic powers. This also relates to the theme of ta king a look from the bottom up because in order to identify these hegemonic powe rs we must take a look at how these hegemonic powers came into power. For exampl e, men came into power by oppressing other woman. 6. The 1969 White Paper was a policy paper proposing to join together aboriginal people and Canadian society to create equality within Canada. This document was intended to eliminate the reserve system, to abolish Indian status, and to tran sfer education, social needs, and health care responsibilities to the provinces. This paper however, was rejected by aboriginals who thought that the reserve sy stem and Indian Act protected their culture. ▯ Because its intent was to create an equality, this can be related to discriminat ion, prejudice, and racism that Canada strive to eliminate in order to create th e same equality within Canadians. It could also be related to multiculturalism i n Canada. There are Canadians from so many different cultural backgrounds that h ave the same rights, responsibilities, and statuses as other Canadians but only aboriginal people have different rights, benefits, and even hold different statu s called Indian ? A specific land claim made in Canada by Pierre Elliot Trudeau in 1969 that promi sed to solving the Indian act. This proposal lead to many claims and controversi es. Although, there was a claim that the indian act was unjust for the Aborigina ls so it needed to be changed it was also argued that the Indian act would produ ce an even more unjust society. By eliminating the Indian act there might not be any other way for aboriginal to negotiate their right with the government. Alth ough, eliminating the Indian act would promote multiculturalism it is also debat ed weather multicultural is good or bad for society. 7. The Bell Curve- the book written in 1994 by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray about intelligence and levels of IQ in different races. This book created a great controversy in studies of social science because one o f the arguments was that genes play a role in determining the IQ of individuals. Although, the evidence that these scholars presented did show evidence that certain races of individuals are more intelligent there is still other reasons that explain why they were more intelli gent. Some scholars suggest that there is structural differences which determine why these children succeed. For example, westside prep a school of black childr en were shown to succeed more because structural differences were removed. For e xample, the teachers had higher expectation for the children unlike in normal sc hools where the expectations for black children are low. This relates to the the me of ideology. The idea that genes influence intelligence is part of the domina nt ideology that emerged from the colonialist attitudes of European settlers. Th e ways in which race is classified as a social construction is a counter-ideology for these colonialist attitudes. ▯ This also relates to the theme of ideology as Stephen Gould discusses the bias i n the Bell Curve experiment. He explains that this bias came from an ideology of Darwinism. This ideology proposes that the reason for human differences is base d on Biology. 8. The Medicalization of Homosexuality- refers to homosexuality being treated as it was a sickness. Biologists, doctors, and psychologists look for evidence tha t shows that homosexuality is something that people are born with. Some of them try to find a cure that could prevent homosexuality. There are many theories and arguments that attempt to prove that homosexuality is a sickness as well as the re are many controversies. However, none of these theories, argument or studies really proved that homosexuality is a sickness and that it can be cured. Constan t hunt for an answer can lead to people trying to change their babies or conside ring abortions as it was shown in the movie, Anatomy of Desire ▯ This could be referred to discrimination also studied in the course because sayi ng that someone is sick because of their sexual orientation is very offensive. S o, we can therefore say that some scientists discriminate homosexuals without ev en realizing it. It can also be linked to race as social construct because there is the same kind of debate where some people think that race is a social constr uct and some think that that race is biological. 9. The Caregiver role- most of the time mother is the main caregiver for a child and a pulse of domesticity. Her role is not only to care after her children but also maintain all the work around her house. As a housewife, she has to prepare food for her family, clean her house, do the laundry, etc. As a mother, she has to nurture children, feed them, clothe them, and socialize them. Her job as a w ife includes providing sexual and psychological needs for her husband. Finally, as being a daughter, she has to care for her elder parents. Husbands' role is to provide for his family and do the physical work around the house (fix something or throw out a garbage). Caregivers are traditionally viewed as consumers not p roducers because they are financially dependent on their spouses ▯ The caregiver role can be linked to intensive mothering. Intensive mothers are t hose who concentrate on their children giving them all their love, time, and ene rgy. Intensive mothering requires mothers to self-sacrifice themselves for their children (Hays, Volume 2). The caregiver role can also be linked to family in t raditional society. The role of mothers of traditional families includes the sam e responsibilities as caregiver's role 10. Sustainable development- refers to meeting our needs today while making sure that we don't damage the environment so that the same needs can be met by the f uture generations. To put it differently, we improve our standard of living by u sing the resources but we do it in the way that it does not damage our environme nt. However, it is often controlled using undemocratic means (Swift, Volume 2). We are creatures of insatiable appetite. ▯ This relates to the theme of progress because of the way in which Paul Hawken de scribes how we are suffering the consequences of making the needs of the econom y before the needs of the environment. He describes that how all of the values o f collective ownership created by the Aboriginals has made us suffer severe cons equences. For example, he explains how owning private property has widened the g ap between the rich and the poor. ▯ It can be related to technology. We start to produce eco friendly technology suc h as solar batteries, solar powered cars, energy saving light bulbs, water powe red clocks, etc. Such technologies meet our needs and the needs of future genera tions. ▯ The video on James Bay the Wind that keeps on blowing also relates this topic to the theme of progress because the video describes how the government trying to make the Hudson Bay Inland more dependant on hydro-electricity has disrupted the cycle of nature and negatively affected the cree people. For example, it caused salinity changes in the oceans these salinity changes made the fish contaminate d by Mercury and when the fish were contaminated this creates less food supply f or the Cree people. 11. Intensive mothering- is giving all the love, time, and energy of a mother to a child, it is around the clock care. Intensive mothers are those who sacrifice themselves for their children, they put their children above all the other resp onsibilities. As Sharon Hays says intensive mothering is "child-centred, expert guided, labour-intensive, and financially expensive."(pg 14, Vol ▯sma b) There elief that there is no bad child. Child rearing cons▯ motheo▯f female not m ale; they are not capable or reliable), spending huge amounts of time, energy an d resources on child and putting them above herself and compared to work, the ch ild is more important. ▯ Ties into the theme of ideology arises from neo-liberalism and the backlash to feminism. There is a conflict bet ▯Rielly and Hays that shows the major criti cisms in social science. Adrie ▯nneeOly suggest that motherhood is oppressive and should be abolished (counter-ideology) There is a transformation between tra ditional and modern society because custodial mothering changes to radical mothe ring. Also, shows how the rise of capitalism has influenced western belief syste ms. The reason mothers buy a lot of thing for their children is because they bec ome a marker of status. ▯ It can be linked to caregiver role because intensive mother usually also has to perform as housewife (laundry, cooking), mother (nurturing children), wife (meet ing sexual and psychological needs of her husband), and daughter (care about her elder parents) 12. The Death of Birth- basically means the end o ▯carrying capacity.. [is ] the uppermost limit on the number of species an ecosystem or ha
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