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Department
Social Science
Course
SOSC 1009
Professor
Paula Wilson
Semester
Winter

Description
LEANRING  OBJECTIVES:  NATURE  OF  SCIENCE   A1:  Describe  how:     • Science  is  a  process  (how  science  builds  knowledge)   • That  the  scientific  method  is  flexible  in  nature   • And  how  ‘choices’  are  made  among  alternative  hypotheses  in  science.  [Comprehension]   Science  is  more  than  a  simplified,  linear  method.  It  is  a  process  for  understanding  the  natural  world.  Science  is  a  way  of   looking  at  the  world  that  involves  critical  thinking.  A  major  part  of  critical  thinking  involves  asking  questions.  Science  is   dynamic,  collaborative,  involves  repetition  and  is  ongoing  in  research.  Even  if  a  hypothesis  is  refuted,  science  is  a  process   that  builds  knowledge.  Melvin  Cohn  says  “  I  am  grateful  to  be  in  a  profession  where  the  realization  of  being  wrong  is   equivalent  to  an  increase  in  knowledge”.  Knowledge  builds  in  science,  whether  the  theory  or  hypothesis  is  wrong  or   right.     Science  is  always  flexible  in  nature.  If  science  isn’t  flexible  in  nature,  then  it  is  no  longer  called  science.  There NE   no  O scientific  method  (e.g.  Proff  said  that  geologists  have  a  different  way  of  setting  up  experimental  designs  than  one   working  in  molecular  biology).  The  scientific  method  is  empirical  (doesn’t  involve  logical  thinking,  but  rather  supported   through  evidence)  and  thus  self-­‐correcting.  If  it  is  self-­‐correcting,  than  we  could  say  that  it  is  flexible  in  nature.     It  is  important  to  note  that  alternative  hypotheses  must  be  tested   INDEPENDENTLY.  This  is  crucial  in  an  experiment.   Finding  no  support  for  Hypothesis  A  doesn’t  mean  that  hypothes is  B  is  supported.  To  support  hypothesis  B,  it  must  be   tested  independently.  This  is  how  “choices”  are  made  among  alternative  hypotheses  in  science.     A2:  Explain  why  in  scientific  experimentation,  controls  are  necessary,  experimental  conditions  must    be  ke pt  as  constant   as  possible,  and  repetition  of  tests  is  necessary.  [Comprehension,  Analysis]     Control-­‐  to  make  sure  that  you  are  testing  the  relationship  between  the  independent  variable  and  dependent  variable   ONLY,  and  not  any  other  cofounding  variable.  >   Could  be  in  a  form  of  a   placebo.     Constants-­‐  must  be  equal  b/c  if  manipulated,  then  results  will  not  be  significant  as  one  substance  w/more  quantity  may   have  deter  mental  effects  than  a  substance  w/very  little  quantity  w/no  effects.     Repetition-­‐  To  clarify  that  the  results  are  based  on  the  one  variable  (or  not).  Larger  the  data,  the  better  accuracy  in   results.       A3.  Compare  and  use  the  terms  ‘hypothesis’  and  ‘theory’  appropriately  in  their  scientific  context.    [Knowledge,   Comprehension,  Application]     Hypothesis:  In  everyday  knowledge,  the  term  “hypothesis”  refers  to  an  educated  guess   –  or  an  idea  that  we  are  quite   uncertain  about.  Scientific  hypothesis,  however,  are  much  more  informed  than  any  guess  and  are  usually  based  on  prior   experience,  scientific  background  knowledge,  preliminary  observations,  and  logic.  In  addition,  hypotheses  are  often   supported  by  many  different  lines  of  evidence -­‐  in  which  case,  scientists  are  more  confident  in  them  than  they  would  be   in  any  mere  “guess”.  To  further  complicate  matters,  science  textbooks  frequently  misuse  the  term  is  a  slightly  different   way.  They  may  ask  students  to  make  a  hypothesis  about  the  outcome  of  an  experiment.  (e.g.  table  salt  will  dissolve  in   water  much  more  quickly  than  rock  salt  will).  This  is  simply  a  prediction  or  a  guess  (even  if  a  well -­‐informed  one)  about   the  outcome  of  an  experiment.  Scientific  hypotheses,  on  the  other  hand  have  explanatory  power -­‐  they  are  explanations   for  a  phenomena.  The  idea  that  table  salt  dissolves  faster  than  rock  salt  is  n ot  very  hypothesis-­‐like  because  it  is  not  very   explanatory.  A  more  scientific  (i.e.  more  explanatory)  hypothesis  might  be  “The  amount  of  surface  area  a  substance  has   affects  how  quickly  it  could  dissolve.  More  surface  area  means  a  faster  rate  of  dissolutio n.  The  amount  of  surface  area   has  a  explanatory  power -­‐  it  gives  us  an  idea  of  why  a  particular  phenomenon  occurs -­‐  and  it  is  testable  because  it   generates  expectations  about  what  we  should  observe  in  different  situations.  If  the  hypothesis  is  accurate,  then  we’d   expect  that,  for  example,  sugar  processed  to  a  powder  should  dissolve  more  quickly  than  granular  sugar.  Students  could   examine  rates  of  dissolution  of  many  different  substances  in  powdered,  granular,  and  pellet  form  to  further  test  the   idea.  The  statement  “table  salt  will  dissolve  in  water  more  quickly  than  rock  salt”  is  not  a  hypothesis,  but  an  expectation   generated  by  a  hypothesis.  Textbooks  and  science  labs  can  lead  to  confusions  about  the  difference  between  a   hypothesis  and  an  expectation  regardin g  the  outcomes  of  a  scientific  test.     Theory:  In  everyday  language,  the  word  theory  is  often  used  to  mean  a  hunch  with  little  evidential  support.  Scientific   theories,  on  the  other  hand,  are  broad  explanations  for  a  wide  variety  of  phenomena.  They  are  conci se  (i.e.  generally   don’t  have  a  long  list  of  expectations  and  special  rules),  coherent,  systematic,  and  can  be  used  to  make  predictions   about  many  different  sorts  of  situations.  A  theory  is  most  acceptable  to  the  scientific  community  when  it  is  strongly   supported  by  many  different  lines  of  evidence   –  but  even  theories  may  be  modified  or  overturned  if  warranted  by  new   evidence  and  perspectives  (e.g.  Newton’s  theory  on  gravity  replaced  by  Einstein’s  theory  on  gravitation).   A4.  Distinguish  and  describe  subject  matter  (and  the  criteria  that  make  them  so)  appropriate  to  scientific    study.   [Comprehension,  Analysis]     • Focuses  on  natural  world;  aims  to  explain  the  natural  world  (e.g.  of  four  diagrams  and  elves)     • Uses  testable  ideas  >  Hypothesis  w/  testable  prediction s  (e.g.  of  singing  crow).  >May  require  some  assumptions.     • Relies  on  evidence.  Verified  through  multiple  lines  of  evidence  =  consilience.  There  is  also  inferences  made  –  this   is  a  logical  conclusion  based  by  observable  facts.     • Leads  to  ongoing  research  (e.g .  of  DNA  molecule)   • Involves  scientific  community   • Results  from  scientific  behavior  (e.g.  night  club).   You  should  be  able  to  derive  different  criterions  for  an  experimental  study.  Understand  the  components  of  a  good   experimental  Study.   Ø Testable  Hypothesis   Ø Control   Ø Treatment  (also  known  as  Experimental  group)     A5.Describe  and  explain  the  limitations  of  science  as  a  means  to  answer  questions,  making  reference  to  the    scientific   merits  of  Intelligent  Design,  Theistic  Evolution,  and  Evolution.  [Comprehension]     It  is  important  to  recognize  that  science  does  have  limitations.  Science  is  based  on  the   natural  world.  Intelligent  design   describes  a  “Creator”  that  is  responsible  for  everything  that  is  made  in  this  universe  w/out  the  usage  of  the  theory  of   evolution.  Science  cannot  observe  the  super-­‐natural  world,  nor  can  disprove  it.  It  cannot  examine  the  afterlife,  because   it  is  not  testable.  Intelligent  design  cannot  be  observed,  thus  hypothesis  cannot  be  derived.  Intelligent  design  cannot  be   incorrect,  thus  it  is  not  self-­‐correcting.  Science  can  be  compatible  w/  religion  only  if  it  followed  the  procedures  of   theistic  evolution  –  that  is,  sharing  a  religious  belief  w/  the  theory  of  evolution.     a)  Differentiate  between  alternative  and  null  hypotheses.   • Alternative  hypothesis  is  any  confounding  hypothesis  that  is  affecting  the  process  explained  in  your  original   hypothesis.     • Null  Hypothesis  has  no  effect  on  the  subject  and  is  very  easy  to  show.  Just  add  “not”  and  you  should  be  fine.       A6:  Explain  the  concept  of  Irredu cible  complexity  making  reference  to  evidence  supporting/refuting  its  validity   (Comprehension)   Definition  of  Irreducible  Complexity -­‐  “an  object  cannot  become  simpler  without  being  non -­‐functional;  complex   structures  cannot  have  evolved  from  simpler  structur es  (e.g.  formation  of  the  human  eye,  bacterial  flagellum,  protein   function)   Bacterial  Flagellum–  Composed  of  more  than  40  different  proteins.  According  to  the  irreducibly  complex,  if  one  of  these   proteins  were  missing,  the  complex  structure  is  non -­‐functional  and  every  one  of  the  individual  proteins  serves  no   function.  According  to  the  “scientific”  method,  this  is  not  the  case.  Molecular  studies  show  that  individual  proteins  are   functional.  The  difference  is,  that  it  doesn’t  function  in  the  same  manner  or  in  the  same   WAY.  This  results  in  leading   more  evidence  for  evolutionists  (i.e.  backfires  the  argum ent  posed  by  intelligent  design).  The  eye  is  not  irreducibly   complex.  It  didn’t  form  spontaneously.  Intelligent  design  argues  probability  and  statistics  in  terms  of  the  formation  of   the  eye,  but  science  states  the  eye  evolved  from  simple  to  complex  structu res.  The  origin  of  stress  hormones  was  over   450  million  years  ago.  It  served  the  same  function  in  the  past,  but  it  was  the  mechanism  that  was  different.  Now,  if  you   were  to  take  the  same  hormone  and  add  two  mutations,  it  would  combine  to  cortisol.     Key  Point:  What  is  now  a  “necessary”  function  or  structure  did  not  start  off  that  way.         A7:  Evaluate  statements/claims  critically,  identifying  them  as  pseudoscience,  anecdotal,  or  valid  scientific  claims   (Analysis,  Evaluation)     First,  we  must  understand  what  t hese  terms  refer  to  and  then  make  references  to  examples.     Pseudoscience   Plays  on  emotions.  Fulfills  the  wishes  of  the  desperate.  Sounds  “scientificy”.  Very  persuasive.  There  is  no  random   sampling  involved.  Not  trusted  by  medical  professionals.  Studies  are  poorly  designed.  Unbelievable  miracle  claims  (e.g.   Dentist  claim  4  out  of  5  dentists  recommend  sugar  free  gum;  are  you  aware  that  these  dentists  probably  were  hired  by  a   sugar-­‐free  gum  company;  miracle  cream  company  >  claims  that  the  cream  will  alter  your  DNA  sequence  and  cause  good   skin).  Intelligent  design  follows  the  idea  of  pseudoscience .       Anecdotal  (Also  known  as  Logical  Fallacy)     Also  known  as  logical  fallacy.  Based  on  a  very  small  amount  of  data.  People  conclude  a  correlational  relationship  (i.e.   there  is/isn’t  a  relationship  between  two  things).  Not  rigorously  tested.  Leads  to  fast  conclusions.  Shapes  our  view  on   cause  and  effect.  Horoscopes  are  within  this  category.  Stanley  cup  game;  if  they  don’t  take  a  shower,  they  will  win   –  not   true.  You  need  a  better  data  set  (i.e.  more   reliable  and  has  a  broad  range).       Scientific  Claims   Valid  scientific  claims  will  always  have  a  control  group,  a  treatment  group,  a  large  random  sample,  a  double -­‐blind   procedure  where  neither  the  subjects  or  the  experimenter  kn ows  what  they’re  doing  and  a  hypothesis  with  testable   predictions.       A8.  Analyze  and  draw  conclusions  from  numerical  and  graphical  data  (i.e.,  read  a  figure).  [Application,  Analysis]     This  can  be  found  by  analyzing  the  different  graphs  in  your  lecture  notes.                                   LEARNING  OBJECTIVE:  HISTORY  OF  EVOLUTIONARY  THOUGHT   B1.  Relate  Lamarck’s  major  contributions  to  evolutionary  thought  to  Darwin’s  evolution  by  natural  selection,  explaining   which  of  Lamarck’s  hypotheses  were  integral  to  Darwin’s  idea,  and  which  were  not,  providing  reasons   [Comprehension]   Darwin  and  Lamarck  both  thought  that  life  changed  gradually  over  time  and  organisms  change  to  be  better  suited  and   adapted  to  their  environment  and  that  all  organism  are  related.   Lamarcks  Hypothesis:     1)  He  proposed  that  all  species  change  thru  time     2)  He  recognized  that  changes  are  passed  from  generation  to  the  next     3)  He  suggested  that  organisms  change  in  response  to  their  environments     4)  He  hypothesized  the  existence  of  specific  mechanisms  that  caused  evolutionary  changes.   The  first  3  were  integral   in  Darwin’s  evolution  by  natural  selection  because  traits  that  are  more  advantageous  to  a   particular  environment  will  more  likely  be  passed  on  to  subsequent  generations.  If  that’s  the  case,  populations  will   change  thru  time  as  they  adapt  to  their  environme nts.   The  Lamarcks’s  theory  of  inheritance  of  acquired  characteristics  has  been  disapproved  in  two  different  ways.  The   changes  in  animals  during  life  are  not  passed  on  to  offspring.  Also  the  study  of  genetics  disapproved  the  Lamarcks   theory.  The  only  way  for  traits  to  be  passed  on  is  through  genes  and  the  genes  cannot  be  affected  by  the  outside  world.   a)  Explain  why  Lamarck’s  hypotheses  of  use  and  disuse,  and  inheritance  of  acquired  characteristics  leading  to   evolutionary  change,  are   not  supported.  [Comprehension]   His  hypotheses  are  not  supported  because  evolution  is  not  based  on  how  often  a  structure  is  used  or  not  used  but  rather   the  genetics.  In  other  words,  an  organism’s  behavior  has  no  effect  on  its  inheritable  traits.  His  hypothesis  focuses  on   how  organisms  develop  from  simple  >  complex  species  (i.e.  progressive).  This  is  refuted,  since  organisms  can  back  to   their  progressive  states  (in  this  case,  simple  species).     b)  Identify  statements/ideas  as  Lamarckian  or  Darwinian,  justifying  your  choice.   [Application,  Analysis]   To  be  determined  in  test.   B2.Explain  the  influence  of  gradualism  and  uniformitarianism,  and  Malthus’s  ideas  of  population  growth  and  food  supply   on  Darwin’s  ideas  of  natural  selection  and  evolution.  [Comprehension]   The  principles  of  gradualism  and  uniformitarianism  influence  Darwin’s  ideas  because  ecological  change  results  from  slow   continuous  processes.  Darwin  stated  that  evolution  through  natural  selection  through  gradual  change  from  the   environment.  This  is  like  uniformitarianism   where  thing  that  change,  change  at  a  constant  rate.  The  Malthus  opinion   regarding  to  the  struggle  to  survive  helped  to  inspire  the  Charles  Darwin  idea  in  his  development  of  theory  of  natural   selection.  Darwin  noted  that  the  population -­‐food  imbalance  postulated  by  Malthus  would  lead  to  competition  between   offspring.  He  considered  that  some  of  those  offspring  would  be  better  equipped  for  the  struggle  than  others,  and  so   would  flourish.  This  "survival  of  the  fittest"  became  the  central  theme  to  Darwin's  develo ping  theory.   B3.  Summarize  Darwin’s  five  observations  and  two  inferences  that  encompass  the  logic  of  his  theory  of  evolution  by   natural  selection  and  explain  the  link  between  the  two  inferences.  [Knowledge,  Comprehension]     Observations:   1. Most  organisms  produce  more  than  one  or  two  offspring     2. Populations  do  not  increase  in  size  indefinitely     3. Food  and  other  resources  are  limited  for  most  populations     4. Individuals  within  populations  exhibit  variability  in  many  characteristics     5. Many  variations   have  a  genetic  basis  that  is  inherited  by  subsequent    generations.     Inferences:     1. Individuals  within  a  population  compete  for  limited  resources     2. Hereditary  characteristics  may  allow  some  individuals  to  survive  longer    and  reproduce  more  than  others     3. A  population’s  characteristics  will  change  over  generations  as    advantageous,  heritable  characteristics  become   more  common.     B4.  Read  a  phylogenetic  tree  identifying  common  ancestors  and  speciation  events;  explain  what  a  phylogenetic  tree   represents.   A  Phylogenetic  Tree  is  a  diagram  that  is  used  to  represent  the  evolutionary  relationships  of  organisms  that  are  thought   to  have  a  common  ancestry.  The  tree  trunk  represents  the  ancestors,  while  the  tree  branches  are  the  organisms  that   have  arisen  from  it  (known  as  descendants).  The  notes  represent  speciation  (the  verge  of  species  advancing  into  new   species).  Each  branch  represents  a  evolutionary  history.  Phylogenetic  trees  take  on  the  most  simplest  explanation  by   looking  at  homologous  traits.  Analogous  traits  are  more  rare  and  therefore  not  considered  in  creating  phylogenetic   trees.   LEARNING  OBJECTIVE:  EVIDENCE  FOR  EVOLUTION     1. Describe  briefly  the  general  process  of  fossilization  (including  conditions  ideal  for  fossilization),  types  of  bias  in  fossil   record  (and  reasons  for  them),  and  how  dating  of  fossils  is  achieved.  [Comprehension ]   a. Fossilization  occurs  when  part  or  all  of  an  organism  is  buried  in  ash,  sand,  mud,  or  some  other  type  of   sediment   b. Ideal  conditions  for  fossilization  include  swamps,   Part  of  an  organism  is  buried  however  decomposition  (low  O  levels  which  makes  it  hard  for  bacteria  to   break  down)(rapid  burial+  slow  decomposition).  After  millions  of  years,  the  mountain  is  eroded  and  the   location  of  the  buried  material  is  filled  with  sediment  and  the  ha bitat  dries.   c. Types  of  bias  in  fossil  record   i. Habitat  bias:  organisms  that  live  in  areas  where  sediments  are  actively  being  deposited   including  beaches,  mudflats,  and  swamps-­‐are  much  more  likely  to  form  fossils  than  are   organisms  that  live  in  other  habitats.   ii. Taxonomic  and  tissue  bias:   slow  decay  is  almost  always  essential  to  fossilization,  so  organisms   with  hard  parts  such  as  bones  or  shells  are  most  likely  to  leave  fossil  evidence   iii. Temporal  Bias:  recent  fossils  are  much  more  common  than  ancient  fossils.  This   causes  a   temporal  bias  in  the  fossil  record.   iv. Abundance  Bias:  organisms  that  are  abundant,  widespread,  and  present  on  Earth  for  long   periods  of  time  leave  evidence  much  more  often  than  do  species  that  are  rare,  local,  or   ephemeral.   d. Originally  geologist  used  distinctive  rock  formations  or  fossilized  organisms  to  identify  the  boundaries   between  named  time  intervals.  Later  researchers  started  using   radiometric  dating  –  expressed  as  years   before  the  present-­‐     i. Radiometric  dating:  is  based  on  the  decay  rates  of  certain  radioactive  isotopes.     ii. Absolute  age:  dating  rock  near  fossils   iii. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2io5opwhQMQ   2. Describe  how  continental  drift  and  chance  catastrophic  events  could  affect  the  evolutionary  history  (patterns  of   speciation  and  extinction)  of  a   species.  [Comprehension]   a. The  break-­‐up  of  pangea  caused  rapid  diversification.  This  is  due  to  the  fact  that  organisms  were  now   exposed  to  completely  new  environments  in  which  they  had  to  adapt  to.  Therefore,  in  response  to  the   changing  environment,  continen tal  drift  diversifies  species.  It  also  means  that  similar  organisms  can  be   found  along  east  coast  of  south  America  and  the  west  coast  of  Africa   b. Adaptive  radiation:  when  single  lineage  produces  many  descendant  species  that  live  in  a  wide  diversity   of  habitats  and  use  a  wide  array  of  resources     3. Distinguish  between  structures  similar  via  common  ancestry  (homology)  and  convergent  evolution,  justifying  your   choices,  and  explaining  how  both  phenomena  result.  Identify  examples  of  each,  including  the  different  types  of   homologies  (vestigial  trait,  genetic/developmental/structural  homology).  [Compr ehension,  Application,  Analysis]   a. Homology  refers  to  characters  that  are  similar  as  a  result  of  common  ancestry.  Whereas,   convergent   evolution  is  the  evolution  of  similar  adaptions  in  distantly  related  organisms  that  occupy  similar   environments.   b. Homology  has  three  levels  and  how  species  are  related   i. Structural:  how  they  are  shaped   ii. Development:  development  of  embryo   iii. Genetic:  DNA  sequence  similarity  of  genes  from  different  species   c. Vestigial  traits:  A  vestigial  trait  is  a  leftover  of  a  trait  that  used  to  exist  in  an  organism's  ancestors.  The   present  organism  carries  some  form  of  this  trait  but  it  no  longer  serves  a  purpose  in  the  present.   4. Explain  how  homologies  (including  vestigial  traits),  the  fossil  record,  biogeography,  and  artificial  selection  support   hypotheses  of  common  ancestry/descent  with  modification  and  formulate  predictions  rega rding  these  hypotheses.   Evaluate  examples  to  determine  which  support  the  hypotheses  of  common  ancestry.  [Comprehension,  Application,   Analysis]   a. Fossil  evidence  of  extinction à  Extinction  is  evidence  that  species  change  through  time.  Darwin  said  that   resemblance  between  these  fossils  and  living  species  in  the  same  geographic  area  implies  that  the   ancestors  of  living  form.  It  shows  how  species  without  favourable  and  heritable  traits  do  not  survive  to   produce     b. Transitional  fossilà  fossils  species  with  traits  intermediate  between  those  of  older  and  younger  species.   Near  the  branching  point  where  major  individual  lineages.  Which  means  it  is  about  to  go  through   evolution.   c. Biographyà  since  earth  was  one  giant  piece,  species  that  lived  in  that  one  place,  were  then  sep arated  by   the  movement  of  continents.  Leading  to  evolution  of  each  of  the  groups  separated  from  their  place  of   orgin.   d. Vestigial  traità  a  trait  no  longer  used  by  species  and  are  found  in  common  ancestors   e. Homologyà  the  similarity  of  structure  and  function  of  a  part  of  the  specie  is  evidence  of  evolution  since   it  is  common  in  other  species  (evolved  from  common  ancestor)   f. Artificial  selectionà  organisms  with  a  particular  trait  are  selected  for  breeding  changing  the  population   to  all  have  a  particular  trait   5. Describe  how  early  steps  to  life  may  have  occurred  via  abiotic  processes,  and  the  importance  of  the  Miller -­‐Urey   experiment  to  evolutionary  studies.  [Comprehension]   a. HYPOTHESIS  1:  REDUCING  ATMOSPHERE  à  early  atmosphere  was  reducing  atmosphere  due  to  a  high   concentration  of  hydrogen  and  methane  and  ammonia.Which  allowed  the  formation  of  complex   molecules.  Today  it  is  an  oxidizing  atmosphere  so  complex  molecules  cant  be  formed.no  ozone  layer  and   therefore  UV  light  and  lightning  were  enough  energy  to  drive  for  comple x  new  molecules.  Miller   introduced  a  reducing  atmosphere  to  a  closed  system  and  gave  a  lil  bit  of  energy  and  water  vapour  was   added  to  one  part  and  a  week  later  he  discovered  organic  molecules.   i. Chemical  evolution  was  possible  because  an  abundant  source  of   energy  available  to  trigger   endergonic  reactions   ii. Some  of  the  molecules  produced  by  chemical  evolution  found  in  organisms  today.once  chemical   evolution  began,  a  wide  variety  of  small  organic  molecule  were  produced  and  accumulated  in   the  environment  of  ancient  earth   b. HYPOTHESIS  2:  DEEP-­‐SEA  VENTS  à  the  vents  are  near  volcano  eruption  which  releases  nutrient  rich   water  and  reduced  molecules  and  allow  life  to  be  formed   c. HYPOTHESIS  3:  EXTRATERRESTRAIL  ORGINS  à  A  METERIOTE  HIT  EARTH  WITH  IMPORTANT  MOLECULES   TO  DEVELOP  LIFE.   6. Relate  evolution  to  the  diversity  and  unity  of  life,  making  reference  to  the  Cell  Theory  and  the  Theory  of  Evolution  by   Natural  Selection.  [Comprehension]   a. Evolution  refers  to  all  species  are  related  by  descent  from  a  common  ancestory.  Cell  theory   states  that   organisms  are  made  up  of  cells  which  come  from  pre -­‐existing  cells   b. Evolution  states  that            
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