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SOSC 1130 Final Exam Review.doc

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Social Science
SOSC 1130
Alina Marquez

SOSC 1130 Exam Review Post WWII Immigration Policy • New criteria for selecting immigrants, based on occupation and education • Points system o Points attributed for positive factors of migrants (education, employment) o Way of assigning points of various categories that include education, employment opportunities in Canada, age, degree of fluency in English or French, personal characteristics o Also categorized adaptability o Non-preferred ethnic groups were in favour of points system, in theory it was colour blind due to objectiveness o Diminished power of immigration powers to assess non-objective qualities o Others argued officers no longer had power to admit good immigrants that did not pass the point system o Unequal effects, some people in certain countries didn’t have same access to employability and education opportunities (women and certain classes) o o • 1967 Protocol o Defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. The Convention also sets out which people do not qualify as refugees, such as war criminals o Also known as Geneva Convention • Canada wanted refugees to boost economy, demand for goods and services that had not been available during great depression and world wars. Need for labour increased, Europe had large demand for Canadian exports in order to reconstruct Europe • Businesses wanted open-door policy towards immigrants, others concerned about the type of immigrants coming to Canada • Refugees and the Cold War o Fear of outsiders o People who sympathized with communism not let into Canada o Changed in 1960s when Canada lacked skilled labourers o Established department of man power and immigration, dealt with bringing people in • Absorptive capacity: Canada could only absorb a certain amount of people, and only want a specific type of people • To accept non-sponsored immigrants, they had to fit in to Canada’s view • 1976 Immigration Act o Foster a strong economy (some areas of Canada received more immigrants) o Help reunification of families o Canada’s international obligations (refugee framework, humanitarian) o Act established business class immigration  Brought in entrepreneurs who would employ those living in Canada, later on also included investors (all to boost economy) • Independent immigrants had a difficult time coming to Canada, people had to have a job waiting in Canada that could not be fulfilled by non-immigrants Globalization and International Migration • Development of international system has created greater inequalities between regions and within regions • Process towards a worldwide integrated system • Power is left out of globalization definitions, do not address power relations • Both production and distribution are organized globally • System is led by and in response to needs of transnational capital • Transnational economic institutions are central to the system and came to being after WWII • Two principles of new world order o Multilateralism  Cooperation  Work together to achieve greater efficiency  All countries should open border to trade o Conservative Macro-Economic Policies  DO NOT SPEND MONEY  Policy to eliminate deficit  Less subsidies, health care  Focus on cutting deficit, but really cutting social programs  Subsidies to business continue • All applicable to international migration cut humanitarian services in order to maintain profit. Multilateralism – reduces jobs in North American Countries, produces harsher job conditions in other countries where policies are not there to protect • Use globalization to exploit others, seek of larger profit, spending less money: Canada and women from the Philippines as nannies • Relatable to neo-liberalism, as its also based on economic growth Neo-Liberalism • Ideology inherent in a set of policies that stress free market and free trade • Stressed individual freedom and a minimalist role for the state • States role was to protect rights and freedoms, nothing else • Blends liberal political views with an emphasis on economic growth. • State should withdraw from economy, should be controlled by market • Three steps o Deregulate (state shouldn’t regulate economy) o Privatization (provides best services) o Liberalization (individual responsibility, individuals have ability to enter the market without state interference, remove trade barriers) • Market works itself out • Main goal is to dismantle national barriers, open borders • Has lead to wealth, but also displacement and economic losses to many Canada’s Response to Global Apartheid and Globalization • Developing an immigration framework that focuses on three areas o Economic efficiency  Commodification of labour • Recruitment of highly skilled • Recruitment of guest workers  Recruitment of investors and entrepreneurs o Individual Self-Sufficiency  Come if you can support yourself, gov’t will not look after you o Security • Need women from third world countries to work
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