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COMPLETE Modern History II Notes: Part 13 -- got 92% in the course!

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HIST 1082
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The Seven Years’ War Around the World 12/5/12 • First truly global war o Often called French and Indian War by Americans  Lasted 9 years in America • Global war between france and England and their allies o France fought england’s allies in brutal war in Europe • Occurred between 16 and 17 century states competing for global power in Europe o Brought together role of demographics, trade and exchange, and definition of self and other in shaping global events  War shaped north America and the world going forward • In the mid 17 century, English and French economists articulated theory of mercantilism o Provided new and better justification for more competition between European empires  Economic competition to war’s place o Around 1700, European competiton crystalized between England and france and their colonies  Fought 3 inconclusive wars between 1688-1748 • By the last of these three wars, England and france had founded alliances in central and eastern Europe o Alliances were balanced enough by 1748 that things were neutral • Didn’t anticipate that when peace was broken in 1754 it would be broken in North America in the Ohio Valley o England and france’s global empires and entanglement of alliances ensured that conflict would spread among the world • War began with Battle of Jumonville’s Glen pitted French patrol against small English militia force and group of Iroquois allies from Virginia o George Washington on his first command expedition  There because of tensions that were brewing o For French, ohio region was gateway to territory in Mississippi valley and trade  For English, it was attractive land for settlement and place to open up trade with native americans • Crossing Appalachian mountains into ohio valley o Threatened French  could cut off communication with Quebec and English threatened to transfer military and trading alliance from Indians to their side • French = reinforcing the forts o Scouting territory for English  George Washington was there to counter large number of French military in the valley • Led to French fort at daybreak o Washington and his allies attacked without warning  French were unprepared and surrendered • Jumonville arranged for translation of king of French into English o Indians attacked again without warning, killing Jumonville brutally, and attacking wounded French before Washington could stop them • Encapsulates that war had more than 2 sides o Native American groups (Iroquois the most) sought to manipulate situation to their own advantage  Allied themselves with one side or the other when they felt interests were good • In this situation, committed to keeping French out so English could set up trade  Wanted to preserve their culture on their land • Chain of events began with French retaliation o Sent out 700 soldiers from strongest fort in Ohio Valley  Fort Duquesne  Force led by Jumonville’s older brother sent Washington’s men fleeing panic stricken back to Virginia • British government decided to strike back at several forts including Fort Duquesne o Thought that French would want to strike a treaty faster through force  Not how things went down… • In first 2 years of war, French were successful and British was unsuccessful o French launched attack against british interests in Mediterranean  Attacked and captured naval base on island of Minorca off of spanish coast and fought off fleet English sent to defend it o England officially declared war of france on may 18, 1756 • War had spread throughout Europe o Austria, various german states, and Russia at war • Change of government and tactics in Britain o New leader of government = William Pitt  Altered britains course in war  Instead of forcing peace negotiations, focused on defeating New France instead • Expensive plan but allowed british to take advantage of 2 things – british naval strength and demographic • In 1755, population of new france = 90,000 while 13 colonies = 2,000,000 o Naval blockade  New france depended on supplies from france to a much higher degree than britain and also depended on france for fur market • Without trade, no formal alliances with Indians for france • Harvests in quebec had failed for 3 years and labor shortages due to military keeping males away from their farms o New france risked being thrown back on own small population and small resources  Demographically unable to sustain war against Britain and its colonies • First real british successes in war  Louisbourg o Formidable French port that guarded mouth of St. Lawrence river  Laid siege to Louisbourg • Didn’t have reinforcements because ships cought in british naval blockade • Second major success = Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario o Located at head of St. Lawrence where it flows out of Lake Ontario  British capture of French ships by blockade aided in French defeat o Only about 100 people at Fort Frontenac  Counting on Iroquois allies to help defend fort but they didn’t come through • Some warriors left o Gave up Fort Frontenac in 1 day • Key to naval control of lake Ontario and controlled communication between quebec and colonies in Midwest o Couldn’t trade with native American allies and contact with colonies became hard • British also took fort’s supplies including military equipment and such that cost 33
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