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COMPLETE Modern History II Notes: Part 14 -- got 92% in the course!

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HIST 1082
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The Dawn of the Age of Revolution 12/7/12 • British government appointed Jeffery Amherst as governor general of North America o Commander at siege of Louisbourg and surrender of Quebec from French military in 1760s  Wasn’t as successful as governor general because he didn’t really understand culture/political balance French had been maintaining in trade and military alliance with Native Americans • Unable to see beyond the stereotypes he had about Native Americans and didn’t think they were capable of any political or cultural sophistication • Amherst policies toward N. Americans thoroughly alienated them o Coordinated Native American uprising across frontier and from Maryland to Virginia  Pontiac’s War  outbreak parallels a lot of that of American Revolution • Aggravated colonists who felt they had right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness and they believed they had right to take up arms to defend it • Pontiac’s War had far reaching global routes and came about from combination political ideological and material factors o Relationships between French settlers/government of New France and Indians  Fur trading partnership had created a consumer revoltion among native americans of interior north America • Undergone a commercial transformation that allowed wider range of goods to wider range of people and market that enticed people to buy goods even if they weren’t needed  As fur trade picked up, many native American groups willingly adapted European goods, like metal pots, weapons, alcohol, beads, etc. • Useful to native americans and were sometimes better than what native americans originally used or less labor to make/use o Didn’t adopt all European culture  still made their own types of clothes and careful when approaching Christianity  Came to depend on European goods and reoriented their economies/politics to meet demands of fur trade in order to get these goods  Posed no problems as long as trade market was working between French and Indians • When trade system broke down, system of alliance shifted to English, who had the goods French were missing o English under rule of Amherst failed to maintain responsibilities to alliance  English stopped giving diplomatic gifts traditionally used to open diplomatic meetings with native americans and restricted access to trade • Restricted trade with firearms o Amherst saw benefits as cutting costs, potentially place healthy limits on military capacity of native americans, and help them abandon way of life and become “civilized” british o For native americans, political factions that didn’t favor trade with Europeans gained power • New religious movement started sweeping through native American groups of Ohio Valley o Teachings suggested that there was a single Master of Life who created native americans separate from Europeans  Punished native americans with plagues and such for adapting European customs and goods • Should abandon European customs and go back to traditional times where they made their own weapons and stuff to fight against Europeans • Neolin gaining power from region of western NY, through great lakes, to Illinois o Preached that war with Europeans was inevitable  Stage was set for rebellion • 3 factor to start war = European settlement o Made promises about land with native americans in the beginning  Agreed that some parts of land was restricted just for native americans while in other areas, small European settlements could be built • Hadn’t been negotiated in good faith  a lot of diplomats were American land speculators who wanted to make a fortune selling land to people that belonged to native americans o Neither british government or colonies had power to stop settlement in ohio valley o Demographic pressure was increasing  farmland becoming scarce and waves of settlers moving west to find more land  Particularly enfuriating native americans were group of settlers from Connecticut who claimed Wyoming Valley for themselves although it was meant for native americans • Pontiac = leader of Ottawas lead native americans on attack of europeans’ Fort Detroit o With cooperation of other nations from Midwest, uprisings spread as far north as Michigan, as east as Fort Niagara  At fort Niagara, native americans were able to disrupt communication route between colonies and Britain o Attacked European settlers where they were unprotected  Killed and took captive as many as 2,000
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