City of Richmond v. JACroson (1989)
• Dealt with contracts that were specifically for minority contracters. 10% percent was only
• Issue: Richmond went back on their contract illegally
• Decision: The local government does not have right to do it and the involuntary quota
system is not ok. There was no past discrimination in Richmond in paving street,
therefore the set asides were violations of the equal protection clause.
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
• Issue: the constitutionality of using race in deciding admissions towards law school.
• Grutter argued that if spots hadn’t been given to minority applicants than she would be in
the school. Equal Protection Clause of the 14 .th
• Court uses Strict Scrutiny test, Michigan uses race as a part of many factors, no quota or
count. That, together with amicus briefs that argued for diversity and affirmative action.
That was to satisfy a compelling state interest in affirmative action.
Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)
• Right to privacy is the iss