Cell Signaling Notes

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201
All Professors

Cell Signaling NotesImportance of Signaling Mechanisms 5 Nobel prizes in the last 15 yeas have been related to cell signaling Types of Cell Signaling Variety of different types of ways that cells signal each overo Direct Contact One cell physically directly contacting anotherShows the different kinds of direct contact signaling On top there are cell junctionso Either gap junctions or plasmodesmata that allow material to flow between the two cellso Situation where direct contact cell signaling This cell makes this molecule and can diffuse into the other cell and cause some effect Same is true in plant cells with plasmodesmata There is also cellcell recognitiono Have a cell with receptors on it and another cell that has signal molecule displayed on cell surfaceo If these two come together it causes some effect in the cell that has the receptoro Lots of examples during development and during the immune system in which this cellcell direct contact is very important o Local Signaling One cell signaling cells in the adjacent area Usually either goes under paracrine signaling or synaptic signaling 1 Shows local area signaling Paracrine signalingo Cell that is secretly some regulatory molecule and it is impacting the cells in the surrounding area Synaptic signalingo Between neurons o Very similar in one sensethere are neurotransmitters signal molecules that are released by one cell and they bind to receptors on the postsynaptic side of the junction and causes some effect in the target cello Over a very local areao Distant Signaling One cell signals cells from a distance Involves hormonal signals Typically involves the endocrine systemShow long distance signaling Signal molecules are produced by a cell 2They diffuse into the blood stream and the signal molecules are spread throughout the entire body and bind to some target cells at some distanceo It may be your adrenal gland releasing adrenaline and that affecting muscle cells all over your body Underlying mechanisms for all of these types of signaling are the same Stages of Cell Signaling Signal Receptiono Most of the receptors are proteins bound in the plasma membrane On the extracellular side of the membrane in many cases What does the receptors being proteins tell us about the specificity of the receptorsReceptors are going to bind a single signal molecule and only that signal moleculeshighly specific because proteins are involved What does the proteins being bound in the plasma membrane tell us about the properties of the signal moleculesSays that the signal molecules for those receptors are not permeable to the membrane which is why the receptor is on the surface of the cellBasic model for signal reception Signal molecule binds to the receptor on the extracellular surfaceso we have receptiono Some of the receptors are proteins located in the cytoplasm What does this tell us about the properties of these signalsTells us that those signal molecules are membrane permeable In almost all cases those membrane permeable signal molecules will be steroidso Steroids being lipids are permeable to the membrane and can therefore pass right through the cell membraneo Whether or not a tissue responds to a signal depends on the receptorthere is a specific receptor for each molecule Hormonal Signaling 3
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