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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2083
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Chapter 17 GlycolysisVocabularyAlcoholic Fermentation the anaerobic pathway that converts glucose to ethanol Aldolase in glycolysis the enzyme that catalyzes the reverse aldol condensation of fructose16bisphosphate Anaerobic Glycolysis the pathway of conversion of glucose to lactate distinguished from glycolysis which is the conversion of glucose to pyruvate Committed Step in a metabolic pathway the formation of a substance that can play no other role in metabolism but to undergo the rest of the reactions of the pathway Glyceraldehyde3Phosphate a key intermediate in the reactions of sugars Glyceraldehyde3Phosphate Dehydrogenase an important enzyme in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Glycolysis the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to threecarbon compounds Hexokinase the first enzyme of glycolysis Kinase a phosphatetransfer enzyme with ATP as the usual source of the phosphate Lactate Dehydrogenase an NADHlinked dehydrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate Phosphofructokinase the key allosteric control enzyme in glycolysis it catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose6 phosphate Pyruvate Kinase the enzyme that catalyzes the final step common to all forms of glycolysis SubstrateLevel Phosphorylation a reaction in which the source of phosphorus is inorganic phosphate ion not ATPTriosephosphate Isomerase the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glyceraldehyde3phosphateThiamine Pyrophosphate a coenzyme involved in the transfer of twocarbon units Chapter 17 GlycolysisChapter SummaryWhat are the possible fates of pyruvate in glycolysisIn glycolysis one molecule of glucose gives rise after a long series of reactions to two molecules of pyruvate Along the way two net molecules of ATP and NADH are produced In aerobic metabolism pyruvate is further oxidized to carbon dioxide and water In anaerobic metabolism the product is lactate or in organisms capable of alcoholic fermentation it is ethanol What are the reactions of glycolysisA series of 10 reactions converts one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate Four of these reactions transfer a phosphate group three are isomerizations one is a cleavage one a dehydration and only one an oxidation What reactions convert glucose6phosphate to glyceraldehyde 3phosphate In the first half of glycolysis glucose is phosphorylated to glucose6phosphate using an ATP in the process Glucose6phosphate is isomerized to fructose6 phosphate which is then phosphorylated again to fructose16 bisphosphate utilizing another ATP Fructose16bisphosphate is a key intermediate and the enzyme that catalyzes its formation phosphofructokinase is an important controlling factor in the pathway Fructose 16bisphosphate is then split into two threecarbon compounds glyceraldehyde3phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate the latter of which is then also converted to glyceraldehyde3phosphate The overall reaction in the first half of the pathway is the conversion of one molecule of glucose into two molecules of glyceraldehyde3 phosphate at the expense of two molecules of ATP What reactions convert glyceraldehyde3phosphate to pyruvate
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