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Chapter 19 Resources (got the best grade in class)

17 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 2083

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Chapter 19 The Citric Acid CycleVocabularyAmphibolic able to be a part of both anabolism and catabolism Anaplerotic referring to a reaction that ensures an adequate supply of an important metabolite Citrate Synthase the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the citric acid cycle Citric Acid Cycle a central metabolic pathway part of aerobic metabolismElectron Transport to Oxygen a series of oxidationreduction reactions by which the electrons derived from oxidation of nutrients are passed to oxygenGlyoxylate Cycle a pathway in plants that is an alternative to the citric acid cycle and that bypasses several citric acid cycle reactionsGlyoxysomes membraneenclosed organelles that contain the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle Intermembrane Space the region between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes AKetoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex one of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle it catalyzes the conversion of aketoglutarate to succinylCoAKrebs Cycle an alternative name for the citric acid cycle Matrix Mitochondrial the part of a mitochondrion enclosed within the inner mitochondrial membraneNonHeme IronSulfur Protein a protein that contains iron and sulfur but no heme group Oxidative Decarboxylation loss of carbon dioxide accompanied by oxidation Oxidative Phosphorylation a process for generating ATP it depends on the creation of a pH gradient within the mitochondrion as a result of electron transport Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex a multienzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetylCoA and carbon dioxide Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle another name for the citric acid cycle Thioester a sulfurcontaining analogue of an esterChapter 19 The Citric Acid CycleChapter SummaryThe central role of the citric acid cycle in metabolismThe citric acid cycle plays a central role in metabolism It is the first part of aerobic metabolism it is also amphibolic both catabolic and anabolic Where does the citric acid cycle take place in the cell Unlike glycolysis which takes place in the cytosol the citric acid cycle occurs in mitochondria Most of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are in the mitochondrial matrix Succinate dehydrogenase the sole exception is localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane What are the key features of the citric acid cycle Pyruvate produced by glycolysis is transformed by oxidative decarboxylation into acetylCoA in the presence of coenzyme A AcetylCoA then enters the citric acid cycle by reacting with oxaloacetate to produce citrate The reactions of the citric acid cycle include two other oxidative decarboxylations which transform the sixcarbon compound citrate into the fourcarbon compound succinate The cycle is completed by regeneration of oxaloacetate from succinate in a multistep process that includes two other oxidation reactions The overall reaction starting with pyruvate is NAD and FAD are the electron acceptors in the oxidation reactions The cycle is strongly exergonic How many enzymes are needed to convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA Pyruvate is produced by glycolysis in the cytosol of the cell The citric acid cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria so the pyruvate must first pass through a transporter into this organelle There pyruvate will find pyruvate dehydrogenase a large multisubunit protein made up of three enzymes involved in the production of acetylCoA plus two enzyme activities involved in control of the enzymes The reaction requires several cofactors including FAD lipoic acid and TPP
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