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PSYC3082 Study Guide Final Exam

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PSYC 3082

Psychology 3082 Abnormal PsychologyBryan J Gros PhDFinal Exam study guideBy all means be prepared to answer questions based on small case examplesDisorders seen first in childhoodADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderSymptomsoCentral Features inattention hyperactivity and impulsivityoAssociated with behavioral cognitive social and academic problemsoDSMIV Symptoms ClustersCluster 1Symptoms of inattentionCluster 2Symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity clusterEither cluster 1 or 2 must be present for a diagnosisoSymptoms must be present prior to age 7CriteriaoGenetic Contributions ADHD runs in familiesoPrevalenceOccurs in 412 of children who are 612 years of ageSymptoms are usually present around age 3 or 423 of children with ADHD have problems as adultsoBoys outnumber girls 41oProbability of ADHD diagnosis is greatest in the United StatesoPsychosocial FactorsConstant negative feedback from teachers parents and peersPeer rejection and resulting in social isolationSuch factors foster low selfimageoTreatmentGoal is to reduce impulsivityhyperactivity and to improve inattentionStimulant medications reduce the core symptoms of ADHD in 70 of casesBehavioral treatment involving reinforcement programs to increase appropriate behaviorsMay also involve parent trainingCombined BioPsychoSocial treatmentsLearning Disorders Problems related to academic performance in reading mathematics and writingPerformance is substantially below what would be expectedReading DisorderoDiscrepancy between actual and expected reading achievementoReading is at a level significantly below that of a typical person of the same ageoProblem cannot be caused by sensory deficits ie poor visionMathematics DisorderoAchievement below expected performance in mathematicsDisorder of Written ExpressionoAchievement below expected performance in writingCriteriaoReading difficulties are most common of the learning disordersoAbout 32 of students with learning disabilities drop out of schooloReading disorder runs in families with 90 concordance rate for identical twinsoTreatmentRequires intense education interventions Remediation of basic processing problems teaching visual skillsEfforts to improve of cognitive skills instruction and listeningTargeting behavioral skills to compensate for problem areasEarly intervention improves outcomePervasive Developmental DisordersProblems occur in language socialization and cognitionPervasive means the problems span the persons entire lifeExamplesoAutistic disorderoAspergers syndromeAutistic DisorderSymptoms and FeaturesoSavant skills are possible skill above and beyond what they should beoSignificant impairment in social interactions and communicationoRestricted patterns of behavior interest and activitiesoOnset usually prior to age 3 usually develop before 36 months of ageoThree Central Features of Autism1 Problems in Socialization and Social FunctionPoor eye contact little if any interest in relationshipsLoners lack of enjoyment in activitiesPoor use of nonverbal behaviorsLack of emotional reciprocity2 Problems in Communication50 never acquire useful speechUnusual speech echolalla repeating certain words or repeating what you have saidPoor ability to maintain communication with othersLack of makebelieve or spontaneous play3 Restricted patterns of behavior interests and activities maintenance of samenessPreoccupation with restricted patterns of interest abnormal in intensityMay be inflexible in routines or ritualsStereotyped motor movements or mannerismsPreoccupation with parts or objectsCriteriaoMore prevalent in females with IQs below 35 and in males with higher IQso50 have IQs in the severetoprofound range of mental retardationoCausesHistorical views bad parenting unusual speech patterns lack of selfawarenessCurrent understandingMedical conditions not always associated with autismAutism has a genetic component that is largely unclearNeurobiological evidence for brain damage also unclearCerebellum size is substantially reduced in persons with autism
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