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Louisiana State University
PSYC 4030

PSYC 4030THINKINGDECISION MAKINGEXAM 2 STUDY GUIDEPROBLEM SOLVING LECTUREWhat are the components of the IDEAL problemsolving framework IIdentify the ProblemDDefineRepresent the ProblemEExplore Possible StrategiesAAct on StrategiesLLook BackEvaluate ResultsHow does the two trains problem highlight the importance of problem representation Representing the problem in the right way simplifies itWhat are set effects and how was this demonstrated in Luchins 1942 water jug problemstSubjects who practiced on 1 5 problems solved similar way were primedset on a certain strategy so that when they went to 8 many failed to solve the problem required a different approach However subjects who went straight to 8 wo being set on a strategy were more likely to solve the problemWhat is functional fixedness Being fixed on typical function of objectunable to see novel uses COGNITION MEMORYTHINKINGWhat are the 3 systems that make up LTM according to Tulving 1Episodicspecific eventsexperiences2Semanticbasic factsgeneric knowledge of world3Proceduralhow to perform an actionWhat is the difference between availability and accessibility Availability info in memory deals w storageAccessibility ability to access infoparticular point in time deals w retrievalDistinguish between the major types of memory tests on the basis of the cues that are provided to participants Recognition Testspecific cue ex PhotoCued Recallless specific cues ex Definition of wordFree Recallvague cue only isolates datetimeWhat are the characteristics of STMWorking memorySTMsingle limited capacity allows rehearsal of info shorttermWMmulticomponent system supports different activities workingWhat components make up Baddeleys model 1Phonological Loopacousticverbal info2Visuospatial Sketchpadvisualspatial info3Central Executivedecisionmaking component that manages use of info4Episodic Bufferstores multidimensional info integrated across modalitiesWhat are proactive and retroactive interferenceProactive Interferencepast lessons interferes w present learningoKnowing Spanish interferes w ability to learn FrenchRetroactive Interferencepresent learning interferes w past lessonsoLearning French interferes w remembering Spanish How are these effects tested 1Type textType textType textWhat is reconsolidation and what are its implications for memory Reconsolidationreactivation of memory which makes memories unstableIn what way is remembering constructiveRemembering is constructive bc involves consolidating different types of info prior experience schemas etcHow is our memory different from a tape recorder Different bc tape recordersoHave no emotionsoDont require attentionoDont form expectationsoInformation is verbatim word for wordoNot affected by environmentcontext in which memory is encodedretrievedHow do we make sourcemonitoring judgments What is a source monitoring error When specific event is incorrectly determined to be the source of a memoryWhat is encoding specificityIf particular detail was presentencoding then itll make a better cueretrieval than a detail that wasnt presentLikelihood of retrieval depends on overlap btw info presentencoding andtime of retrievalWhat type of studies provides good evidence for this hypothesis Context Change Studiesencode in one contextretrieve test in samedifferent contextoEx Scuba Diver Study GoddenBaddeley 1975external contextoEx Smith 1979imagined same contextoEx State Dependent memory drunk high depressedinternal contextDescribe the effect of changing context between encoding and retrieval Easier to retrieve info when in the same context as when it was encodedSame context is equal to imagining context and both are greater than different contextoContext is like a cue for specific encoded infoWhat is the difference between explicit and implicit memory direct and indirect tests Implicit memoryunconscious memories that influences behavioroIndirect testinstructed to complete task not specifically retrieve info from memoryeg Stem Completion Free Association Perceptual IdentificationExplicit memoryconscious memory that influences behavioroDirect testinstruct participant to retrieve info from memory of specific eventeg Recognition Cued Recall Free RecallWhat are schemas2
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