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Sociology Exam 1 Notes (98% on the test)

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SOCL 2001
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Test 1Sociology 20011 Chapter 1WHAT IS SOCIOLOGYSociologythe study of social life Industrial Revolution c 1700sinternal combustion engine 1700s electricity steam engine 1800sbegan in England spread to Europe and then to North Americapeople moved to cities to work in factories fewer farmerscities exploded in sizein Middle Ages London was smaller than 1 square mile smaller than LSUs campusoriginally no limits in factories no minimum wage no safety requirements pollution was rampantunemployment began to exist Auguste Comtecoined the term sociologie in 1854wanted to figure out how societies workedtried to study the governing laws of human behavior Adam Smith 1776Wealth of Nations economiststconsidered the 1 sociologist by someargued for free market competition or Laissezfairewanted no government regulation of economic activitysupported supply and demandcolonies were still controlled by England mercantile laws7 years war 17561763 only war started in America that spread to EuropeEngland started to enforce laws and taxes they hadnt enforced before the warDeclaration of Independence was to fight English taxesHigh Division of Labor everyone in society has a specialized task assembly line increased production Karl Marx 18181883stsome consider him to be the 1 sociologistpolitical writer and activist but his ideas were not well acceptedsaw the problems industry created in Londontook Communist ideas and gave them a broader prospectiveeconomic determinism economic system of society shapes all other parts political legal family religionsaid a persons position lay in relationship to the means of productionbourgeoisiemake money off of other peoples laborcapitalist ownersproletariatpeople who have to sell their laborthought the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisieconflict theorylooks at different groups struggles over power and resourcesbelief that society exists as conflicts between groups C Wright Millsconflict theoristThe Sociological Imaginationunderstood that personal problems were a part of a bigger sociological issueThe Sociological Promiseno use in studying society unless you use that knowledge to improve society have an ideological agenda Structural Functionalismlooks at the way different parts of society function to produce the wholethey compare society to a complex organism each part plays its own role similar to the different organstheory developed by Auguste Comte influenced by DarwinHerbert Spencer was influenced by Comtehe came up with the phrase survival of the fittestTalcott Parsons American 1900stook a broad view said every part had a functioneveryone mentioned so far was trying to do one thing discover the governing laws of human behaviorthey thought that if they could uncover the laws they could fix societys problemsa student of Parsons Robert K Merton said that it was foolish to look for laws governing human behaviornatural sciences built up their knowledge slowlysaid sociology was too young for them to make any major breakthroughssaid sociology should concentrate on Theories of the Middle Rangewanted to come up with theories to explain each separate part of society before they could come up with something to explain everythingwanted to find the function of everything need to look for both functions and dysfunctionsthings could be functional and dysfunctional at the same timebasic function of education is to teach people skills so they can be beneficial members of societymanifest functionfunction we expect something to performlatent functionthose that arent often thought about Symbolic Interactioncreated by George H Mead he said one thing that sets humans apart from animals was their ability to use symbols that everyone understood languageallows us to talk about past and future or things that arent present Table 1 pg 17 FunctionalismConflict TheoryInteractionismA system of interrelated and Made up of groups struggling Individuals in facetoface View of interdependent partswith one another over scarce interaction create social societyresourcesconsensusLittle concern with Little concern with People are symbol manipulators View of personality people are personality people are the self personality arises from the shaped by society to shaped by social institutions communication and social individualperform important functions and the position of their interactionfor societygroups in societyThe social system tends to Change is inevitable and Change occurs when there is no View of resist change as disruptivecontinuousshared consensus about expected social behavior change involves changedeveloping a newly found consensusIntegration Interest power dominance Interpretation consensus Key interdependence stability conflict coercionsymbols shared expectations conceptsequilibriumsocially created realityMacro level Micro level Micro levelthings are done by people who interact with each otherFunctionalism and the Conflict Theory are known to be macrolevel Midlate 1800sEmile Durkheimst1 to use statistics to analyze societylooked at suicide rates between Catholic and Protestant parts of EuropeHe said that it all had to do with the norms and values of societythe Catholic areas had a lower suicide ratehad to do with the amount of regulationWhere there is overregulation in society people tend to feel like they have no control and will be likely to commit suicide Fatalistic Suicide
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