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PSYC 1101
Frank Naarendorp

Wilhelm Wundt:  Elements of consciousness – human response to physical stimulus o Method of inquiry: introspection –looking within self o Building blocks of consciousness Edward Titchner  “Structuralism” – studies the relationship between elements of consciousness  Failure – led to gestalt psychology Hermann Ebbinghaus  Studied elements and structure of memory William James  Functionalism - Function of behavior is to bring about successful adaptation (fight vs. flight)  Remarkable flexibility of mental processes  Influence by Darwin John Watson  Behaviorism – can only study observable  Determine relationship between input and output Sigmund Freud  Unconscious – psychological causes of abnormal mental functioning Max Wertheimer  Gestalt Psychology –the whole is greater than the sum of its parts  Looking at psychology as a whole Terms Psychology – the study of behavior and mental processes Developmental Psychology – how humans change as they grow; human development across the life span Social Psychology – interpersonal behavior: attitude formation, change, prejudice, and conformity; how behavior is influenced by presence of others Experimental Psychology – utilizes scientific methods to research psychology: among others: sensation, perception, learning, conditioning Physiological Psychology – role of brain + peripheral nervous system in behavior Cognitive Psychology – consistency in behavior: which factors shape personality, how to assess personality Personality – consistency in behavior; which factors shape personality Empiricism – knowledge through observation Determinism - we do not accept pure metaphysical explanation for the study of behavior and the study of the mind Scientific Attitude – objectivisim; skepticism; open-mindedness Observer Bias - form of reactivity, in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to unconsciously influence the participants of an experiment Subject Bias - Undesirable ways in which the participant can influence the results of a study (guessing the hypothesis and playing along, giving the socially correct response, etc. Natural Observation - The research method of observing the respondent in the least obtrusive manner. This would include watching the respondent without questioning the respondent. Case Study - A process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time Surveys - A general view, examination, or description of someone or something Correlation Studies - Studies that investigate whether a hypothetical relationship truly exists between two or more variables. The range of possible correlations is between -1 and +1; When a variable cannot be experimentally manipulated to measure its effect on another variable Correlation Coefficient - A number between -1 and +1 calculated so as to represent the linear dependence of two variables or sets of data (positive, negative, zero) Theory – specific set of relationships regarding a given subject Hypothesis - proposes a cause and effect relationship; statement of a relationship between two events Dependent Variable – A response, behavior or outcome that is measured. Independent Variable – variable that can be changed by the experimenter Confounding Variable - a second variable (in addition to the independent var.) that has an undesirable effect on the dependent variable. Operational Definition - state how you will measure the independent and dependent variable. Reliability - measurement of the dependent variable under similar conditions at different times produces the same results. Validity - do you measure what you claim to measure; regards independent variable
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