AFRAS 170A Midterm: Afras Midterm Practice Test

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Black People in Colonial North America, 1526-1763 ■ Chapter 3
The Peoples of North America
1. How do most historians believe the Native Americans arrived in North America?
a. Asians moved across a land bridge from Siberia to Alaska.
b. Native Americans originated in North America, just as other types of humans originated on
other continents.
c. Native Americans originated in present-day Peru and migrated northward with population
d. None of these answers are correct.
2. What types of achievements did Native Americans in North and South America make before
the arrival of Columbus?
a. Native Americans actually had an incredibly primitive society and had accomplished very
little at the time Columbus arrived.
b. Native Americans had made some simplistic efforts at understanding science, but had very
little political organization.
c. Native Americans had established religions and large cities, but had made few cultural
achievements such as art or literature.
d. Native American civilizations had established religions, political systems, and large, complex
cities. They also had made many discoveries in science, especially astronomy and
3. What happened to the sophisticated Mississippian culture during the fourteenth century?
a. They were wiped out by European diseases.
b. They were destroyed by climactic change and warfare.
c. They became the most dominant culture in the hemisphere, after destroying a rival tribe.
d. None of these answers are correct.
4. Which of the following was not a way Native American culture influenced European and black
lives and culture?
a. Indians assisted Europeans with planting and understanding native crops such corn, potatoes,
and pumpkins.
b. Because the Native Americans were so decimated by disease, they really had no opportunity
to influence either culture.
c. Indian modes of transportation and clothing became common among European colonists.
d. The use of an Indian crop, tobacco, led to the enslavement of Africans in North America.
5. What is true about Native American relationships with African slaves?
a. Native Americans saw African slaves as very different, and quickly adopted racist views
similar to the British.
b. Being very proud culturally, Native Americans refused to mix sexually with slaves.
c. Native Americans often provided refuge to escaping slaves and some areas saw extensive
race mixing.
d. None of these answers is correct.
6. Who was the first English explorer to reach North America in 1497?
a. Sir Francis Drake
b. John Smith
c. John Cabot
d. Christopher Columbus
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Black People in Colonial North America, 1526-1763 ■ Chapter 3
7. Why did the British not establish colonies as rapidly as the Spanish?
a. The English monarchy was not as wealthy as the Spanish monarchy.
b. The English people were going through a lot of religious turmoil with the Protestant
c. The climate in North America was far different than that in England.
d. All of these answers are correct.
8. Where was the first permanent British settlement in North America?
a. Jamestown
b. Newfoundland
c. Roanoke
d. Massachusetts Bay
9. What effect did the discovery of tobacco as a cash crop in Virginia have on the colony’s labor
a. The British immediately began to import African slaves to do the heavy work on the tobacco
b. It really had no effect, since tobacco was not thought of as desirable; Virginians had to turn to
other crops, such as cotton, to make a living.
c. Early tobacco was a very dangerous product, and quickly killed off the Indians the white
settlers had used as slave labor.
d. The British needed more labor, though they initially turned to their “undesirables” as a
10. Who brought the first Africans to North America?
a. The Dutch
b. The Spanish
c. The British
d. The Germans
11. Which statement is true of the colonists at Jamestown in the early months of 1619?
a. The colonists were all white until a Dutch warship brought about 20 Africans to the colony.
b. The colonists were roughly half white and half black.
c. The colonists included some of African descent.
d. The colonists were evenly divided between blacks, whites, and Native Americans.
Africans Arrive in the Chesapeake
16. The early status of blacks in North America under the British colonies was initially unfree,
but they were not slaves. Why was this so?
a. Unlike Spain and Portugal, England had no legal experience with slavery and had no codes to
guide them.
b. The British were intent on converting the pagan Africans to Christianity.
c. The first arrivals had been stolen from the Spanish, and British common law required that
they be set free immediately.
d. All of these answers are correct.
17. What can be said about the early population statistics of blacks in Virginia?
a. Because African men and women were imported in equal numbers, the population grew very rapidly.
b. Until the mid-1600s, people of African descent remained a very small minority in the British colonies.
c. Blacks immediately began to reproduce very successfully in the colony.
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Black People in Colonial North America, 1526-1763 ■ Chapter 3
d. None of these answers is correct.
18. Who were the largest class of laborers in British North America before 1670?
a. black slaves
b. white slaves
c. Russian immigrants
d. indentured servants
19. Which of the following is not true about indentured servitude in British North America?
a. Black people were often considered and treated as indentured servants.
b. Masters were often very brutal and controlling over their servants.
c. Indentured servants could become free once their terms of service to their masters were
d. Indentured servitude was completely race-based among the British. Only whites could be
indentured servants.
20. What does the story of Anthony Johnson, a black man in early Virginia, tell us about the legal
status of blacks within the colonies before the 1670s?
a. Blacks could gain their freedom.
b. Blacks could have legal rights in the courts.
c. Blacks could own fairly substantial amounts of property and have their own servants and
d. All of these answers are correct.
21. Which word or phrase best describes the status of black people in early Virginia?
a. ambiguous
b. completely subordinate
c. independent
d. set in stone
22. By about 1700, the British colonies had practically replaced indentured servitude with black
slavery. What factors caused this to happen?
a. The British had gained control of the slave trade in Africa, and this caused the price of slaves to go down.
b. Fewer indentured servants were willing to go to the Chesapeake.
c. The British could look to their established precedent of slavery in the Caribbean as an
d. All of these answers are correct.
23. How did British racism affect the nature of slavery in their colonies during the 1600s?
a. Laws in the early 1600s forced all blacks into slavery for life, allowing only whites to be
indentured servants.
b. Laws were made, making penalties for blacks harsher than that for whites.
c. Black women were never assigned to do anything except the most routine house chores.
d. British racism had really not developed at this time. Racism came about later, when slavery
was well established.
24. How can historians see that blacks’ labor status evolved into a lifetime term, rather than just the 5 to 7 years of a
typical indentured servant?
a. Laws in Virginia and Maryland demonstrated that blacks could be held for life.
b. Prices for blacks became more expensive than whites.
c. Legal punishments for blacks, but not whites, could include life terms added to service.
d. All of these answers are correct.
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