[COSC 253] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (14 pages long)

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COSC 253
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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COSC 253 Materials and Methods
Masonry
Masonry is made up of materials that we stack to create a homogenous structure.
These include: brick, stone, etc.
May or may not utilize mortar. If the materials are strong enough you can dry stack.
Either structural or decorative, but still used as a cladding for a building for protection.
Spanning the opening: metal lintel often used now. Back in the ancient days corbeled arch and a true
roman arch.
The industrial revolution brings steel structures to the US and masonry is no longer used for load bearing.
The Monadnock Building, Chicago
The thickness of the masonry walls is in proportion to the height. The higher up you go the thinner the
walls get because they don’t have to hold as many floors. This was the last of the load bearing masonry
building thanks to the invention of steel.
Construction Specifications Institute (CSI): Division 4 Masonry
Mortar is made of 4 main ingredients:
Portland Cement or Masonry Cement
Hydrated Lime males the mortar smooth and workable
Aggregate (sand) must be clean and sized properly
Water binds ingredients
Grout is joint filler that has more water or polymer based and typically non-structural.
Most architects require a mockup before the entire wall is constructed on a building.
ASTM C270
Type M High Strength Mortar Structural walls, severe weather and below grade
Type S Medium Strength Mortar Structural walls, severe weather
Type N Medium Strength Mortar Most above grade work. Texas
Type O Medium or Low Strength Interior work
Tuck-pointing is refurbishing the joints. Grinding out as much mortar as possible and then replace it.
Especially common in the North when the joints are frozen and thawed and repeated.
The engineer writes in the specs how many metal reinforcement ties are needed to attach a brick façade to
the structural system. Ex: Every 6 courses, 3 feet on center.
Wall Flashing is what we do to protect buildings from water penetration.
Flashing materials include: metals, plastics and heavy-duty tapes.
Flashing needed for any opening in the wall system. It is a normally a slanted piece of material to direct
water away.
There is either internal or external flashing. The internal flashing is not visible once construction is
finished.
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Weep holes are the voids at the bottom of masonry walls. They act as drains for the air space/vapor spaces
that release water over time from condensation.
Hollow masonry units can also be structural. Hollow is simply stating the fact that there is a void, but it
can still be reinforced for structural uses.
Typically the term brick refers to solid masonry units.
The cells and cores in these bricks is to make it easier to handle and manufacture. Also helps with the
weight of the unit.
Nominal dimensions include the mortar joint. Actual dimensions are the measurements of the actual
brick.
A modular system is the system of the individual bricks that create a standard system. *See chart in notes.
What is the construction advantage of a modular system? Faster construction, less waste, cheaper, less
energy, standard sizes.
Hollow Brick: When the void is more than the material in a cross sectional view.
Grades of Building Brick:
Grade SW Severe Weathering: Foundation, below grade, freezing
Grade MW Moderate Weathering: Our climate
Grade NW Negligible Weathering: Weather not a problem
Types:
FBX: Consistent, perfect. 40% higher cost. Paying for perfection. Texas A&M bricks
FBS: Start to vary.
FBA: Non-uniform. Residential applications
Concrete Masonry Unites: CMUs
In Texas CMU are used to build walls because they are faster due to no curing concrete and no formwork.
They are easier to use also because of the labor in Texas. They turn out to be cheaper.
Book: 183-184
Slump brick is concrete blocks that are removed from the form before the concrete is 100% cured to allow
the block to slightly lose form.
Concrete Masonry Unites are classified as:
1. Solid Load Bearing
2. Hollow Load Bearing
3. Hollow Non-Load Bearing
A common nominal concrete block size is: 8x8x16
A bond block is a special concrete block that is u-shaped to create a channel to run reinforcement
horizontally and back fill it with grout.
Special units are either stock or custom.
A pilaster is a decorative column. Built within your wall but more of a half column to just add a
decorative touch.
CMU Grade
Load-bearing blocks are available in two grades: N and S
Grade N: general use, exterior walls both above ad below grade.
Grade S: above-grade exterior walls NOT exposed to moisture
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