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Soci 205 Exam 3.docx

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SOCI 205

$60 gas $20 fri dinner $30 walmart crafts $20 sat dinner $130 total. Sociology Exam Three Sociology of Culture: 1) Culture- shared meanings, practices, and symbols 2) Values- ideas held by individuals or groups; what is desirable, shaped by the environment 3) Norms- rules of conduct, backed by sanctions; context of how to behave 4) Material good- physical object society creates, which influences how people live 5) Harkness and Hip Hop Culture a. Difference between values and norms b. Groups have different values and norms c. Hip-hop is becoming mainstream d. In US, key value of hip-hop is authenticity e. AAs can use the n-word, whites can’t f. Rules are less concrete for other minorities g. Why can some Latinos use the n-word? i. Not a double standard; it’s a lack of standards h. Race and authenticity are socially constructed 6) Tartans and kilts a. Clan- extended family with designated chief b. Scottish kilt i. Invented in 1730 by English industrialist ii. Wanted workers to have something convenient to wear iii. Before 1850s, no clan tartans 1. Patterns identified with clans c. Trevor-roper i. Why is tartan so widely accepted? 1. Practical military uniform a. Romanticized and created sense of community 2. Lancaster wool merchants a. Wanted a market for their wool ii. Why so popular? 1. Created a Scottish identity and clan ID a. Functionalist perspective 2. People leaving Scotland saw them as a link to their past iii. Effects? 1. Legitimacy of clan chiefs a. Happened when clan was breaking down 2. Tartan: helped maintain clan identity during times of great change iv. Who benefitted? 1. Clan heads 2. Lancaster wool manufacturers a. Early form of advertising i. Make product fundamental d. Eric Hobsbawn (invention of tradition) i. Create a sense of community ii. Legitimacy for new institutions iii. Socialize people to new beliefs/behaviors e. Invention of tradition i. Kissing 1. Eskimo kisses fascinate kids 2. Lip kissing invented in 2000BC India a. NEW tradition b. Began with noses smelling f. Approaches to studying culture i. Functionalists: cultural patterns socialize individuals, reinforcing norms ii. Harris and sacred cows in India 1. Late 1960s 2. Indians starve, cows run free 3. Cow worship= Hinduism a. Relatively recent b. Cows=agriculture i. Monsoons/survive droughts 4. Restricts meat consumption by higher castes; more animal protein available to poor 5. Allows lower castes to retrieve skin for leather 6. Prevents population from eating animal necessary for agriculture iii. Conflict: cultural patterns reinforce and reflect existing social (power) relations 1. How cultural understandings differ with groups 2. Elijah Anderson= code of the street a. Inner city “decent” vs. “street” people b. Decent people: mainstream American values and are in the majority c. Street people: subculture i. Distinct from mainstream society d. Both look tough to avoid being bothered e. Why does “the code” prevail i. Low confidence in police f. Kids learn the “social meaning of fighting” i. Honor tied with street performance g. If you can’t count on the police, you must look tough to prevent attackers h. Oppositional subculture: respect i. All inner city residents know the code Sociology: Individualism and Commitment 1) Individualism a. Are individualism and humanitarianism in conflict? i. Many sociologists believe so ii. Poor give larger percentage of money than rich do to charities iii. How can someone be for others and themselves 2) Background a. Tocqueville (1830s) i. Came to learn about American democracy ii. Americans are compassionate, generous, but also selfish 3) Individualism and Christianity a. John Winthrop, 1 governor of Massachusetts i. Christian love ii. “we must delight in each other, make each other’s conditions our own, rejoice together, mourn together, and labor and suffer together: always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work, our community as members of the same body b. Robert Wunthrow i. Acts of Compassion: caring for others and helping ourselves (1991) ii. 80 million volunteer (18+), 44% of Americans iii. 31 million volunteer in churches, 20 in school, 16 at hospitals iv. Surprising results 1. Americans cherish individualism a. As much as they cherish caring for others 2. Freedom a. Absolutely essential, very important 3. Achievement a. At work, and at life 4. Americans are skeptical about a. Compassion (2/3, only concerned with self) b. Selfishness (8/10, selfish= problem, 1/3 selfish= big problem) v. Americans are individualistic and altruistic vi. Can only live for yourself or others vii. Key finding: relationship between values and charitable activities viii. IS possible to care for ourselves and others ix. Methods: 1. Surveys and interviewers regarding: a. Individualistic values and volunteering i. How to combine compassion with individualism ii. Why to the volunteer? No clear reason b. Interview subjects i. Lack explanation of motives ii. Mills and vocabulary of motives 1. How do we describe our motivations? 2. we meet Martin Barnes in the book a. budget administrator (mon-fri) b. married with kids c. Episcopalian d. president of meals on wheels (volunteers m-f) e. he’s not a saint, he does it selfishly because it makes him happy f. vocabularies of fulfillment  replaced (not universal) x. generally, respondents struggled to explain their motivation for volunteering 1. people said they could explain many ways 2. Wunthnow: why take any reason seriously? xi. Outcome: cynicism 1. Problem of pluralism 2. No single motivation anchors commitment xii. Vocabularies of motive 1. Biblical 2. Utilitarianism a. Ethical focuses on utility for common good b. Resume c. Experience d. Fulfillment 3. What’s missing? Vocabulary of sacrifice a. Freely give of themselves to help others xiii. The problem with fulfillment 1. What happens when someone else makes you feel better than volunteering? Sociology: Religion and Spirituality 1) Religion has a s
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