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Study Guide

[BIL 150] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 30 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIL 150
Professor
Mallery Charles
Study Guide
Final

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UM
BIL 150
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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LECTURE 1
About
I. Scientism
a. A scientific worldview that encompasses natural-scientific explanations for all
phenomena, shuns supernatural and paranormal theories, and embraces empiricism and
reason as the twin pillars of a philosophy of life appropriate for an Age of Science
b. An overpass spanning the gap between the "two traditional cultures" of science and the
arts/humanities
II. 20th century is the age of physicist and chemist; 21st century is age of biologist
III. Inquiry based approach
a. Ask questions and analyze data to find answers
Introduction
I. Growth of Earth’s population
Refer to figures on website
a. Unlimited Population growth - Exponential growth assumes unlimited resources
b. Zero population growthoccurs when per capita birth rate=death rate
c. Carrying capacity: the maximum population size that a particular environment can
support
d. The Census projects the world population to be 9 billion by 9044
e. More developed countries are to have lower population growth
e.i. 2 projected populations for the US because of immigration
e.i.1. 30 million legal immigrants have come to US and about 10.3
million illegals since 1965
e.i.2. ½ have settled in CA, TX, NY, and FL
f. Replacement level fertility (RLF): the level of fertility at which a couple has only
enough children to replace themselves
f.i. Woman should have 2.1-2.5 children to do no more than replace herself and her
mate
g. A proven way to reduce fertility rates is to empower women by educating them about
birth control
g.i. High fertility rates are associated with poverty and low level of educational
attainment for girls
Population pyramids: represent age distributions, grouped by sex, of a living population
g.ii. Good ways to show structure of population
g.iii. Reflect the past of the population, and tend to condition its future
g.iv. Give governments and others one of the tools they need to make informed
decisions that will affect a country’s lives and futures
g.v. Country’s demographic situation
g.vi. Horizontal bar graph with data for males on left and females on right
g.vi.1. Large proportion of young people in developing countries ensures
rapid population growth
g.vi.2. Aging population in developed countries spells little or no growth
h. US population clockbased on short-term projection for residential population
h.i. Daily numbers are derived by interpolation
LECTURE 2
Scientific Method
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I. Scientific Method
a. Uses concepts such as objectivity and acceptability
a.i. Objectivityattempt to observe things as they are, without falsifying
observations to match preconceived world view
a.ii. Acceptabilityjudged in terms of the degree to which observations and
experimentations can be reproduced
b. Ultimate test of the validity of a hypothesis is its consistency with the totality of other
aspects of the scientific framework
c. Scientist: one who works in the trenches, seeking correct answers to a particular
problem, checking exhaustively for exceptions, guarding against mistakes and
preconceptions of an outcome, and avoiding personal bias
d. Scientific theories
a.iii. Patterns observed in the natural world
a.iv. Process or mechanism responsible for the pattern
e. Commonly includes a number of steps
a.v. Observations
a.v.1. From previous studies or directly
a.v.2. Ask a question
a.v.2.a. How’s and why’s of things observed
a.v.3. Look for answers
a.v.3.a. Literature searches to help define or modify question
a.vi. Postulating a premise
a.vi.1. Formulating an explanation (hypothesis) of phenomena
a.vi.2. Posing of a critical and experimentally testable question
a.vii. Formulating hypothesis
a.vii.1. Tentative or possible explanation
a.vii.2. Proposed explanation for a phenomenon that’s experimentally
testable
a.vii.3. Must list expected predictions that hypothesis makes
a.vii.3.a. May suggest alternative hypothesis
a.viii. Experimental predictions
a.viii.1. States results that may be expected from observations and/or
experimental tests
a.viii.2. Designing experiment to test hypothesis
a.viii.2.a. Requires experience, creativity, and sense of what’s
practiceread methods published by others
a.viii.3. Experiments are supposed to test premise
a.viii.4. Experiments are best designed to disprove a hypothesis
a.viii.4.a. Theories can never be proved, only disprovedalways
possibility that a new observation or experiment will conflict with
a long-standing theory
f. Hypothesis can be refuted or falsified, but can never be proven right
a.ix. Evidence can be collected to provide support
a.x. There’s often no proof in science, only ‘disproof’
g. Purpose of an experiment is to disprove hypothesis or to evaluate an alternative
hypothesis
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