What problems occur with personal and professional listening role models?
o Personal are parents, partners, and friend
o Professional is teachers, government officials, police officers,
healthcare providers, business personnel, and airline pilots
Why is listening so important?
o Listening is the first language skill that we develop, and it is followed
by the other language skills
What are some of the rewards of effective listening?
o Increased sales, increased customer satisfaction, increased employee
satisfaction, increased productivity, expanded information base,
improved social ties, improved family relations, heightened self-
esteem, increased enjoyment, enriched lives
What are some of the misconceptions about listening?
o Listening and hearing are synonymous
o Listening competency develops naturally through daily practice
o Listening ability is largely dependent upon intelligence
o Listening and reading are the same process
o Listening is primarily a passive act
o Effective communication is responsibility of the speaker
o Listening means agreement or obedience
o Actual listening is equated with perceived listening
How could schools change their curriculum to include listening?
Explain the components of communication
o Source – speaker who originates a message
o Message – idea of the stimulus in verbal and nonverbal symbols to be
o Channel – the way the message is transmitted (five senses in face-to-
o Receiver – decoder (filters and translates and assigns meaning)
o Feedback – receiver’s response/reaction as perceived by the source
o Environment – where the communication takes place
o Noise – internal and external interference
Source – channel – Message – channel – Receiver
< – Feedback –
Explain communication variables
o Communication variables – factors that facilitate or diminish the
outcomes of the communication
Communication and frame of reference
Message content and structure
Language code and symbolism
Environment What is a perceptual filter?
o The frame of reference consists of background, life experiences,
social-cultural contex, and everything else that makes on a unique
o All these elements create the perceptual filter through which we
receive stimuli, send messages, and relate to the world around us
What is a transactional perspective?
o The perspective of communication as the simultaneous interaction of
the roles of source and receiver has come to be known as
What is Wolvin-Coakley’s definition of listening?
o The process of receiving, attending to, and assigning meaning to aural
and visual stimuli
Explain the model of the listening process
o The Wolvin-Coakley structural definition of listening is depicted as a
sequential process in the model
o The model illustrates the process of listening, or the decoding of the
stimulus through the auditory and visual senses
o Two cones, listening and feedback. Listening is wider at the top and
narrower at the bottom to indicate that a given stimulus can be
interpreted in as many ways as there are listeners
The lower cone narrower at the top illustrates that if a listener
chooses to respond overtly, the listener draws on his or her
personal schema or categories to encode the message and then
sends a feedback stimulus that is open to varied
interpretations by various receivers
Listening cone contains the tree components receiving,
attending, and assigning meaning, overlapping
Overt response is dotted because it may or may not happen
What are the differences of the functions of the outer middle and inner ear?
o Outer ear, which consists of the pinna and the canal, serves to direct
the sound waves into the hearing mechanism
o Middle ear connect the eardrum with the ossicular chain that
connects the eardrum to the opening of the inner ear, or the oval
o Inner ear serves as the sensory organ for balance and as the final
organ for hearing
What is sociocusis?
o All persons are affected by sociocusis
o Hearing loss from exposure to occupational and nonoccupational
noise sources such as tractors, riveting machines, rock music, and jet
Explain selective attention, energetic attention, and fluctuating attention
within the “attending to” component of listening o Selective attention – discriminatory mechanism to assist us in
selecting the wanted from the unwanted aural stimuli
o Energetic attention – requires both effort and desire to be attending
o Fluctuation attention – Waning of attention means we cannot pay
attention to the selected stimulus for as long as we desire due to a
succession of lapses called microsleep
What is the difference of short-term memory store and long-term memory
o Short term – consists of the current contents of a person’s awareness,
is a temporary store, has a fixed capacity
o Long term – consists of all that a person has previously learned, is
essentially a permanent store, is infinitely expansible
Define “assigning meaning” as the third component of listening
o The third component of listening – assigning meaning – refers to the
interpretation or understanding of the stimuli heard and/or seen and
o In this process, the listener’s goal is to attach meaning as similar as
possible to that intended by the message sender
What is the difference of “frame of reference” and “perceptual filter”?
o Frame of reference consists of all that makes each person a unique
o All of the elements that govern the way one views the world and
creates the perceptual filter through which the listener screens each
message through before assigning meaning
How does emotional triggers relate to a person’s listening?
o Each listener has certain words, phrases, ideas, topics, and people to
which old emotions associated with previous emotional events still
o Thus, these emotional triggers arouse immediate, unthinking, positive
or negative reactions within the listener
How can a person reduce misunderstanding from emotional triggers?
o It is helpful to be aware of how the listener’s frame of reference and
perceptual filter affect his or her assignment of meaning
o To reduce misunderstanding, the listener must develop the desire and
the ability to enter another’s frame of reference – to attempt to see the
message from the speaker’s point of view – especially when the
speaker’s point of view differs greatly from that of the listener
o Also for the listener to recognize his or her emotional triggers and
minimize their effect, and to control one’s emotional reactions
What is the difference of homophily and heterophily? How do these terms
relate to listening?
o Homophily represents the degree to which interacting individuals
have significant similarities in such attributes as background,
education, social status, beliefs, and values o Heterophily is in which interacting individuals have significant
More homophily makes communication more effective
What basis do people use for making listening decisions?
o We make these receiving decisions on the basis of whether we have
the time and/or energy to listen, whether we perceive we have
anything to gain from the listening experience, whether we desire to
listen to the particular source of the communication, whether we feel
satisfied with the communication channel, and a host of other
influences that can affect this initial decision
List choices available to the listener
o Not to listen
o To listen
o To listen for a purpose
o To set aside biases and attitudes in order to understand the message
o To concentrate on the message, not the speaker
o To overcome emotional barriers to listening
o To know why he/she is listening at a given time
o To know how she/he is listening at a given time
o To understand the process of listening – and the process of
communication – to know that he/she is (or should be) doing as a
listening communicator throughout this process
What are the four listening strategies suggested by your text?
o Understanding the self
o Motivating the listening self
o Listening actively
o Sending feedback
Explain the four areas of the Johari Window
o Free area – known to self and others
o Blind area – not known to self but known to others
o Hidden area – known to self but not known to others
o Unknown area – not known to self or others
What is meant by a willingness to listen?
o Motivation to listen vs. listening reluctance
What is meant by right to free listening?
o We can make choices to listen or not to listen
The text suggest 10 guidelines for sending feedback effectively – know 5
o Send appropriate feedback
o Be certain the speaker perceived the feedback
o Make certain the feedback is clear in meaning
o Send feedback quickly
o Beware of overloading the system
What are some attending behaviors? o Eye contact, bodily positioning, nodding the head, maintaining
responsive facial expressions, verbalizing brief and encouraging
expressives, speaking in a warm and pleasant voice tone
Factors influencing the listening process
o Culture, gender, age, hemispheric specialization,
physical/psychological states, attitudes, self-concept
What is the purpose of discriminative listening?
o To distinguish the auditory and visual stimuli
Auditory discrimination assists what areas of development?
o We begin the development of discriminative listening as we learn
to perceive and identify the sounds in our environment and then
to use these sounds to adapt to that environment. Learning oral
What skills are involved in auditory discrimination?
o Recognizing the sound structure of our language, detecting and
isolating vocal cues, understanding dialectal and accentual
differences, recognizing environmental sounds,
Paralanguage includes what vocal cues?
o Paralanguage is vocal cues that accompany one’s spoken language,
such as pitch, inflection, tension, volume, intensity, rate, quality,
tone, and dynamics of the speaking voice
Why is visual discrimination important?
o Analysis of messages in human interactions indicates that the
greatest impact of the meaning of a message may well stem from
what is communicated through the visual channel
How do kinesics, appearance, artifacts, proxemics, chronemics, touch, and
environment influence listening?
o Kinesics – the most revealing visual form, or the language of the
face and body. Through posture, bodily actions, gestures, facial
expressions, and eye behavior, communicators convey numerous
o Appearance – includes aspects such as body shape, body or breath
odor, height, weight, hair, and skin color or tone. Tends to be most
influential when we first meet others
o Artifacts – such as clothing, makeup, jewelry, eyeglasses, vehicles,
homes, furniture, etc. Observant listeners can detect messages of
status, style, and self-esteem
o Proxemics – the language of space and distance