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Chapter 10

Psychology Chapter 10.docx

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Ronald Cummings

Psychology Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion Motivation:  Motivation: internal processes that initiate, sustain and direct activities (dynamics of behaviour) A Model of Motivation:  Need: am internal deficiency that may energize behaviour (begin motivated activities), needs cause drive  Drive: the psychological expression of internal needs or valued goals  Response: any action, glandular activity, or other identifiable behaviour  Goal: the target or object of motivated behaviour  Motivated behaviour can be energized by the ‘pull’ of external stimuli, as well as by the ‘push’ of internal needs Incentives:  Incentive Value: the value of a goal above and beyond its ability to fill a need (different to everyone)  Desirable goals can motivate behaviour even when there is an absence of an internal need  Actions are energized by a mixture of internal needs and external incentives Types of Motives: 1. Biological Motives: innate motives based on biological needs, must be met for survival (hunger, thirst, sleep, air…) 2. Stimulus Motives: innate needs for stimulation and information, not necessary for survival (activity, curiosity, exploration, physical contact) 3. Learned Motives: motives based on learned needs, drives, and goals (related to learned needs for power, affiliation, approval, security and fear and aggression) Biological Motives and Homeostasis:  Biological drives are essential because they maintain homeostasis (bodily equilibrium)  Homeostasis means steady state, optimal levels need to be maintained in the body  When the body deviates from ideal levels, automatic reactions begin to restore equilibrium Circadian Rhythms: cyclical changes in bodily functions and arousal levels that vary on a schedule approximating a 24-hour day  Needs and drives can change from moment to moment but motivations can also last over long periods of time  Body activity is guided by internal biological clocks  People are usually more motivated and alert at the high point of their circadian rhythms Shift Work and Jet Lag:  For major time zone shifts it can take up to 2 weeks to resynchronize  The direction of travel also affects adaption  Adjusting to jet lag is slowest when you stay indoors  Bright light affects the timing of body rhythms by reducing the amount of a brain chemical called melatonin produced by the pineal gland Hunger: Internal Factors in Hunger:  Washburn swallowed a balloon which could be inflated, Cannon recorded the movements of his stomach, when his stomach contracted he felt hunger pangs (hunger is nothing more than the contractions of an empty stomach)  Stomach is not essential for feeling hunger, many things combined cause hunger  The brain receives signals from parts of the digestive system, ranging from the tongue and stomach to the intestines and the liver Brain Mechanisms:  Hypothalamus: a small area at the base of the brain that regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion (hunger, thirst, sexual behaviour) o Sensitive to levels of sugar in the blood, and receives neural messages from the liver and stomach  If the lateral hypothalamus is ‘turned on’ with an electrified probe an animal will begin eating even if it is well fed, if the same area is destroyed the animal may never eat again  Ghrelin is the hormone that makes you feel hungry  A second area in the hypothalamus is part of a satiety system (stop mechanism for eating)  When the ventromedial (bottom middle) hypothalamus is destroyed overeating will occur  The periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus helps keep blood sugar levels steady by starting and stopping eating (sensitive to NPY)  NPY will make animals eat until they cannot hold another bite  Glucagon-like peptide 1 causes eating the cease, after eating GLP 1 is released External Eating Cues:  Most people are sensitive to external eating cues (signs and signals linked with food) Taste:  It is easier to acquire a taste aversion or dislike for certain food  Bait Shyness: an unwillingness or hesitation on the part of animals to eat a particular food o Taste aversion conditions might solve many predator-livestock problems Emotional Eating:  People with weight problems are prone to overeat when they are anxious, angry or sad Dieting:  Sweetness, high fat content and variety encourage overeating  Yo-yo dieting is when people gain weight back after their diet  People gain more weight after their diet because their metabolism  A dieter’s body becomes efficient at conserving calories and storing fat Behavioural Dieting: weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits, rather than temporary self-starvation 1. Get committed to weight loss 2. Exercise 3. Learn eating habits by observing yourself and keeping a diet diary 4. Learn to weaken your personal eating cues 5. Count calories, but don’t starve yourself 6. Develop techniques to control the act of eating 7. Avoid snacks 8. Chart your daily progress 9. Set a threshold for weight control Eating Disorders:  Anorexia: active self-starvation or a sustained loss of appetite that has psychological origins o Do not desire food, but still feel physical hunger o Begins with normal dieting but then starts to dominate the persons life  Bulimia Nervosa: excessive eating usually followed by self-induced vomiting and or taking laxatives Men and Eating Disorders:  One third of men want less body fat and another third want more muscle Causes and Treatments:  Dissatisfaction with body  Usually have distorted views of themselves and low self esteem  Over estimate their body size by 25% or more  Media plays a big role  Sports that require low body fat or extreme weight loss  Anorexic people are concerned with control  Most will not seek help by themselves Culture, Ethnicity, and Dieting:  Some cultural backgrounds are less likely to become susceptible to the glorification of slimness Biological Motives Revisited: Thirst:  Two kids of thirst:  Extracellular Thirst: thirst caused by a reduction in the volume of fluids found between body cells o Caused by bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, alcohol o Makes you crave salty drinks to replenish the water and minerals lost  Intracellular Thirst: thirst triggered when fluid is drawn out of the cells due to an increased concentration of salts and minerals outside the cell o Caused when you eat a salty meal Pain:  Episodic Drive: a drive that occurs in distinct episodes when bodily damage takes place or is about to occur  Pain prompts us to avoid or eliminate sources of discomfort  Attitudes can either raise or lower pain tolerance  We learn how to react to pain by observing family members, friends and other role models Sex Drive: the strengths of ones motivation to engage in sexual behaviour  Unlike other biological motives because sex is not necessary for individual survival  In lower animals the sex drive is directly related to hormones  Female mammals are interested in mating only when their fertility cycles are in the stage of estrus or ‘heat’  Castration will abolish the sex drive  Mating is closely tied to female fertility cycles  Sex drive in men is related to the amount of androgens, women produce little androgens  Testosterone supplements can restore the sex drive in both men and women  The sex drive is non-homeostatic Stimulus Drive:  Stimulus Drive: drives based on needs for exploration, manipulation, curiosity and stimulation  Help us survive, as we scan our surroundings we identify our sources of food, danger, shelter and other key details  The drive for stimulation is present as early as infancy Arousal Theory: assumes that people prefer to maintain ideal, or comfortable, levels of arousal  Arousal refers to activation of the body and the nervous system (0=death)  Low during sleep, high at times of excitement, emotion and panicSensation Seekers: prefer high levels of arousal  People learn to seek particular levels of arousal  High and low scores prefer different things, many people fall in the middle of the two extremes Levels of Arousal:  People perform best when their arousal level is moderate  At extremely low or high levels of arousal you will not perform very well  The ideal level of arousal depends on the complexity of a task  Yerkes-Dodson law: a summary of the relationships among arousal, task complexity and performance o If a task is simple it is best for arousal to be high o If a task is complex it is best for arousal to be low to perform best Coping with Test Anxiety:  Most anxious when students don’t know material  Preparation, relaxation, rehearsal and restructuring thoughts help people cope with test anxiety Learned Motives: Opponent-Process
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