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Chapter 4

PSYC 2P35 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Binding Problem, Choroid Plexus

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Dawn Good

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PSYC 2P35 Chapter 4: Anatomy of the Nervous System
Neuroanatomy: anatomy of the nervous system
CNS: brain and spinal cord
PNS: connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body
Somatic nervous system: part of PNS; consists of the axons conveying messages
from the sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to the muscles
Autonomic nervous system: part of PNS; controls heart, intestines, and other
organs; has some cells inside brain and spinal cord and clusters along the 2 as well
Dorsal: toward the back
Ventral: toward the stomach
Bell-Magendie law: the entering dorsal roots (axon bundles) carry sensory
information and the exiting ventral roots carry motor information
Dorsal root ganglia: the cell bodies of the sensory neurons are in clusters of neurons
outside the spinal cord
Gray matter: in the center of the spinal cord and is densely packed with cell bodies
and dendrites
White matter: consists mostly of myelinated axons
Autonomic NS
Sympathetic NS: network of nerves that prepare the organs for vigorous activity,
consists of chains of ganglia just to the left and right of the spinal cord’s central
regions (the thoracic and lumbar areas)
Parasympathetic NS: the calming system, facilitates nonemergency responses
Hindbrain: posterior part of the brain, consists of the medulla, pons and cerebellum
Brainstem: medulla and pons, midterm, and certain structures of the forebrain
Medulla: just above spinal cord, its an enlarged extension of spinal cord; controls
vital re.exes like breathing through cranial nerves
Cranial nerves: control sensations from the head, muscle movements in the head
and much of the parasympathetic output to the organs
Pons: anterior and ventral to medulla, bridge that makes the brain contralateral
Reticular formation: descending portion is one of the several brain areas that
controls the motor areas of spinal cord; ascending portion sends output to much of
the cerebral cortex, selectively increasing arousal and attention in one area or
Raphe system: sends axons to much of the forebrain, modifying the brains
readiness to respond to stimuli
Cerebellum: large hindbrain structure with deep folds; controls movement and
Midbrain: middle of the brain
Tectum: roof of the midbrain
Superior colliculus: swelling on the side of the tectum important for vision
Inferior colliculus: important for hearing
Tegmentum: intermediate level of the midbrain under the tectum
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