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CHEM 1004 (13)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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CHEM 1004
Gerald Buchanan

Chapter 7 7.1 to 7.11: Cocaine and Amphetamines ● Known as uppers, are central nervous system (CNS) stimulants ● Cocaine ○ History - Reached Europe after Spanish explorers returned from South America ○ Leaves of cocoa plant ○ Is a stimulant, and pain reliever but, addictive ○ Increases stamina and reduces fatigue ○ Is the most unsatisfying of all the major drugs of abuse. It produces ecstasy but never satisfaction. After you take cocaine there is only desire for more ○ Personality traits for heavy users include: ambitious, competitive, and financially well off ○ Cocaine is the only drug lab animals prefer over food, sex and water ○ Coca leaves and coca tea are massed sold in Peru to treat altitude sickness causing fatigue and headaches ○ Isolation of cocaine ■ In 1855 chemists isolated cocaine as a white powder ■ Coca leaves are mashed and treated with alkali to free the alkaloid. Kerosene or gasoline is then added to the coca paste to extract the cocaine. H2SO4is added to precipitate ‘cocaina sulfato’. ■ Takes 500kg of coca leaves($500) to make 1kg of cocaine($1500) ○ Each team cocaine changes hands it is cut with other chemicals creating related compounds but much less potent. Even laundry detergent has been used ○ Cocaine base is water soluble so it is easily ingested by snorting through the watery mucous membrane of the nose or direct injection ○ Crack (‘free’ base) is more volatile and can reach the brain in 15 seconds when heating it and inhaling through smokin ○ Cocaine and Analogs: ■ Cocaine - Stimulant, intense euphoria, analgesic, addictive ■ Scopolamine - ‘truth drug’, preoperative sedative ■ Atropine - Heart stimulant ■ Novocaine - Topical anesthetic (causes unconsciousness and/or insensitivity to pain) ○ Cocaine Addiction: ■ Physiological Effects - Watery eyes/nose, sweating, goose bumps, yawning, dilated pupils, convulsions ■ Psychological Dependence - Uncontrollable desire, physically dependent ■ Tolerance - Increasing dose to obtain the same effect ○ Used to be in coca cola ○ Was designated in the US as a narcotic which is wrong because it is a stimulant ○ Legitimate uses include being used as an anesthetic ○ Cocaine excites the brain by stimulating the release of dopamine and norepinephrine (catecholamines) that are naturally present in the CNS and account for alertness and excitation ○ Also blocks brain from reabsorbing neurotransmitters (reuptake) ○ High concentration of catecholamines leads to a state of euphoria (happiness) ○ Users are more confident, and think they are more competent, smarter, sexier ○ Maximum effects of cocaine happen after 15-30 minutes and the half life is 90 ○ Withdrawal Symptoms ■ Upon abrupt termination of use become physically ill but, no physical signs like vomiting or tremors ■ Takes ~7 days ○ Long term chronic use of cocaine can cause inflammation and chronic damage to vessels around the heart ○ Short term high dosage can cause abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death ● Amphetamines ○ Also CNS stimulants, also known as benzedrine ○ Used to combat depression and in weight loss schemes. Counteracts fatigue and increases endurance ○ D and L isomers has different physiological effects. L has a slightly longer half life but is not a CNS stimulant. Commercial benzedrine is a mixture of D and L isomers ○ Benzedrine was first used in an inhaler used to clear nasal passages since benzedrine shrinks the nasal mucosa ○ Used to treat ■ Narcolepsy - Disorder where person keeps falling asleep ■ Paradoxically - Calm down hyperkinetic children possibly due to a release of serotonin ○ In moderate oral doses (1-50mg) amphetamines have effects similar to adrenaline ○ Effects of Moderate Amphetamine ■ CNS Stimulation: mood elevation, Better concentration ■ Delay the onset of fatigue ■ Increase blood pressure ■ Increase respiration rate (number breathes taken) ■ Raise blood sugar levels ■ Dilate bronchi (better breathing) ■ Divert blood flow from internal organs to skeletal muscle ■ Constrict nasal mucous membranes ■ Depress appetite ■ Improve athlete performance ○ Beta-phenylethylamine - Induces high similar to being in love ○ Methamphetamine - ‘Speed’, strong CNS stimulant ○ Aleve a cold a
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