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Chapter 10

PSYC 1002 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Jean Mayer, Autonomic Nervous System, Orgasm

Course Code
PSYC 1002
Mara Fuentes Avila

of 8
Motives: are needs, wants, interests and desires that propel people in certain direction.
Motivation involves goal-directed behaviour
Drive Theories
Drive theories apply the concept of homeostasus to behaviour. A drive is an internal state of
tension that motivates an organism to engage in activites that should reduce this tension.
When you experience a drive you're motivated to pursue actions that lead to drive reduction
The drive serves to initiate behaviour but doesn't gve direction
Incentive Theories
External stimuli regulate motivational states
An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour
Expectancy-value models (Atkinson and Birch) of motivation are incentive theories that say
you can't always achieve your goal. A person's motivation will depend on:
1) Expectancy about one's chance of attaining the goal
2) the value of the desired incentive
Evolutionary Theories
Human motives are a product of evolution, this is why it explains motives such as affiliation,
achievement, dominance, aggression and sex-drive
Range of Human Motives
Most theories except evolutionary diffirentiate between biological motives and social motives
Biological needs: essentials to survive and there are 10-15 of them
Social needs: Henry Murray said everyone has a need for achievement, autonomy, domianance
and order and people have unlimited social needs and we learn them through learning and
Brain Regulation in Feeling Hungry
The brain regulates hunger and it is controlled by the Lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial
nuclues of the hypothalums.
LH leisioned meant no hunger and leisioned VMH meant excessive eating
Glucose and Hunger
Jean Mayer said hunger is regulated by the rise and fall of blood glucose levels
Glucostatic theory said that flucations in blood glucose level is montoried by glucostats which
are neurons sensitive to gluose in the surrounding fluid.
Hormonal Regulation of Hunger
Insulin is a horomone secreted and it is used to break down glucose from the blood
When Leptin which is a horomone are high you dont feel hunger but when low you do
Environmental Factors to Hunger
1. The availability of food
2. learned prefences and habits
3. Stress
Eating and Weight
Obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) when an individuals weight is divided by his height
squared BMI over 25 is overweight
Set Point
Set Point Theory: the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them fairly stable
Settling-Point Theory: weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors
that determine food consumption and energy spending have an equilibrium
Eating Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa: when young women starve themselves
Bulima Nervosa: when young women eat a lot then puke it up
Horomonal Regulation in Sex
Estorgenare hormones for the femals and androgens are hormones for the males
Hypogonadism: during adulthood people experience low levels of androgens and reduced
sexual motiavation
Evolutionary Analyses of Sexual Behaviour
-Parental Investment Theory: species mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest. Males will
show more interest in sexual activity and femals are more conservative and highly selective
Environmental Theoreis on Homo's
Freudian theorists argue a male will become gay when he is raised by a detached father who is a
poor heterosexual role model and has an overportective mother
Behavourists theorists argue a male becomes homo when same sex stimuli have been paired
with sexual arousal
Excitement Phase in Sex
Vasocongestion happens in the males and females and increased heart rate and respiration.
Vascongestion is the enlargement of blood vessels
Orgasm Phase
Orgasm happens when sexual arousal reaches its peak intensity and discharge happens
Women are able to experience multi-orgasms
Resolution Phase in Sex
This is when a refractory period happens and you can't experience another orgasm for a period
of time
Achievement motive: the need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others and to meet
high standards of excellence
Need for achievement can be measured by the Thematic Appreciation Test
TAT is a test that requires people to respond to vague stimuli that may reveal personal motives
and traits
You are given an image for example a man working at a desk and are aske to write what is
happening in that situation
People with high achievement have a harder work ethic, more persistant, handle negative
feedback better and are future orientated
Situational Determinants of Achievement Behaviour
Atkinson says that the tendency to have achievement is a situation follows 3 factors
1) The strength of one's motivation to achieve success
2) One's estimate of the probability of success for the task at hand
3) The incentive value of success
The last 2 are situational determinants of achievement because they vary from one situation to
Atkinson says a persons fear of failure affects achievement
The Elelemts of Emotional Experience
Emotion involoves:
1) a subjective conscious experience (cognitive component) accompanied by:
2) bodily arousal (physiological component)
3) characteristic overt expressions (behavioural component)
Autonomic Arousal
Autonomic Nervous System: responsible for highly emotional flight-or-flight response, which
causes the release of adrenal hormones
Galvanic Skin Response: increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that happen when
sweat glands increase their activity
Lie detector: device that records autonomic fluctuations while a subject is questionned
Sympathetic System: mobilizes bodily resources in response to stress
Parasympatetic System: conserves bodily resources