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Chapter 10

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PSYC 1002
Mara Fuentes Avila

Motives: are needs, wants, interests and desires that propel people in certain direction. – Motivation involves goal-directed behaviour Drive Theories – Drive theories apply the concept of homeostasus to behaviour.Adrive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activites that should reduce this tension. – When you experience a drive you're motivated to pursue actions that lead to drive reduction – The drive serves to initiate behaviour but doesn't gve direction Incentive Theories – External stimuli regulate motivational states – An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour – Expectancy-value models (Atkinson and Birch) of motivation are incentive theories that say you can't always achieve your goal.Aperson's motivation will depend on: – 1) Expectancy about one's chance of attaining the goal – 2) the value of the desired incentive Evolutionary Theories – Human motives are a product of evolution, this is why it explains motives such as affiliation, achievement, dominance, aggression and sex-drive Range of Human Motives – Most theories except evolutionary diffirentiate between biological motives and social motives – Biological needs: essentials to survive and there are 10-15 of them – Social needs: Henry Murray said everyone has a need for achievement, autonomy, domianance and order and people have unlimited social needs and we learn them through learning and socialization Brain Regulation in Feeling Hungry – The brain regulates hunger and it is controlled by the Lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial nuclues of the hypothalums. – LH leisioned meant no hunger and leisioned VMH meant excessive eating Glucose and Hunger – Jean Mayer said hunger is regulated by the rise and fall of blood glucose levels – Glucostatic theory said that flucations in blood glucose level is montoried by glucostats which are neurons sensitive to gluose in the surrounding fluid. Hormonal Regulation of Hunger – Insulin is a horomone secreted and it is used to break down glucose from the blood – When Leptin which is a horomone are high you dont feel hunger but when low you do Environmental Factors to Hunger 1. The availability of food 2. learned prefences and habits 3. Stress Eating and Weight – Obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) when an individuals weight is divided by his height squared BMI over 25 is overweight Set Point – Set Point Theory: the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them fairly stable – Settling-Point Theory: weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy spending have an equilibrium Eating Disorders – Anorexia Nervosa: when young women starve themselves – Bulima Nervosa: when young women eat a lot then puke it up Horomonal Regulation in Sex – Estorgenare hormones for the femals and androgens are hormones for the males – Hypogonadism: during adulthood people experience low levels of androgens and reduced sexual motiavation EvolutionaryAnalyses of Sexual Behaviour -Parental Investment Theory: species mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest. Males will show more interest in sexual activity and femals are more conservative and highly selective Environmental Theoreis on Homo's – Freudian theorists argue a male will become gay when he is raised by a detached father who is a poor heterosexual role model and has an overportective mother – Behavourists theorists argue a male becomes homo when same sex stimuli have been paired with sexual arousal Excitement Phase in Sex – Vasocongestion happens in the males and females and increased heart rate and respiration. Vascongestion is the enlargement of blood vessels Orgasm Phase – Orgasm happens when sexual arousal reaches its peak intensity and discharge happens – Women are able to experience multi-orgasms Resolution Phase in Sex – This is when a refractory period happens and you can't experience another orgasm for a period of time Achievement – Achievement motive: the need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others and to meet high standards of excellence – Need for achievement can be measured by the ThematicAppreciation Test – TAT is a test that requires people to respond to vague stimuli that may reveal personal motives and traits – You are given an image for example a man working at a desk and are aske to write what is happening in that situation – People with high achievement have a harder work ethic, more persistant, handle negative feedback better and are future orientated Situational Determinants ofAchievement Behaviour – Atkinson says that the tendency to have achievement is a situation follows 3 factors – 1) The strength of one's motivation to achieve success – 2) One's estimate of the probability of success for the task at hand – 3) The incentive value of success – The last 2 are situational determinants of achievement because they vary from one situation to another – Atkinson says a persons fear of failure affects achievement The Elelemts of Emotional Experience – Emotion involoves: – 1) a subjective conscious experience (cognitive component) accompanied by: – 2) bodily arousal (physiological component) – 3) characteristic overt expressions (behavioural component) AutonomicArousal – Autonomic Nervous System: responsible for highly emotional flight-or-flight response, which causes the release of adrenal hormones – Galvanic Skin Response: increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that happen when sweat glands increase their activity – Lie detector: device that records autonomic fluctuations while a subject is questionned – Sympathetic System: mobilizes bodily resources in response to stress – Parasympatetic System: conserves bodily resources Affective Neuroscience – Hypothalamus and amygdala in the limbic system are viewed as the seat of emotions Motivation – Motivation is the internal state that directs a person's behaviour towards a goal M o -D d er i l v oe f N e S e q u e n c e S a t i a t e d s t a t e P h y s i o l o g i c a l D r i v e is d e p r i v a t i o n r e d u c e d d e v e lo p s g r a d u a l l y G o a l d i r e c t e d m o t i v a t e d pP hr y s oi on lgo eg di c a l b e h a v i o r o c c du er sp r i v a t i o n t o g r a t i f y n e p dr o d u c e s b o d i ly
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