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PSYC 2700 (18)

Part 1: Lecture 1 TEXTBOOK NOTES

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PSYC 2700
Chris Herdman

Aristotle: - First philosopher to have advocated an empirically based, natural science approach to understand - Empiricism - Proposed that sensations, images and ideas become associated through similarities and differences (contrast), and by virtue of occurring close together in time (contiguity) - Blank slate at first Wundt: - Many early psychologists were students of Wundt (including James & Titchener) - Accredited with “starting the only true scientific revolution in psychology” - Volkerpsychologie – psychology of the people, was shut down by many - Focused on conscious processes and immediate experience - Introspection: a method in which one looks carefully inward, reporting on inner sensations and experiences Titchener - Worked with Wundt - Focused on introspection; therefore things such as mental illness, educational applications and social psych were impure, as they could not be studied with introspective methods - Stimulus error: describing the physical stimulus rather than the mental experience of that stimulus - Structuralism: the structure of the conscious mind, the sensations, images and feelings that were the very elements of the mind’s structure. - Structuralism contrasted functionalism - Titchener would decide which theories and such would be approved. He would decline theories that opposed those of his own, with no concrete evidence Ebbinghaus - Was a contemporary of Wundt, but never actually studied with him in person - Had no laboratory and served in a nonpsychological academic position; had to rely on his own resources to study memory; once served as his own subject - Use of CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) - Learned the lists with a certain amount of trials; then put the list away for some time; relearned the list in less trials the next time; measured this - Verbal learning highly accredited to Ebbinghaus James - Contemporary of Wundt, Titchener and Ebbinghaus - Sort of functionalism: where the functions of consciousness, rather than its structure, were of interest - Proposed that memory consisted of 2 parts: i) an immediate available memory of which we are currently aware ii) a larger memory, usually hidden or passive, that is the repository for past experience - James and Titchener butted heads, but ultimately, James’ theories were more successful Behaviourism - John Watson believed very highly in experience forms the human
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