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Chapter 2

COMM 222 Chapter 2: Organizational Behaviour Chapter 2

8 Pages

Course Code
COMM 222
Tony Bongiorno

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Chapter 2: Personality and Learning What is personality?  Personality is so important that some companies focus on personality when hiring employees  Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment and how he or she feels, thinks, and behaves o Personality summarizes his or her personal style of dealing with the world o It consists of a number of dimensions and traits that are determined in a complex way by genetic predisposition and by one’s long-term learning history Personality and Organizational Behavior  It was believed that personality was an important factor in many areas of organizational behavior including motivation, attitudes, performance, and leadership o Dispositional approach: focuses on individual dispositions and personality  Individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways o Situational approach: characteristics of the organizational setting, such as rewards and punishment, influence people’s feelings, attitudes, and behavior  i.e.: job satisfaction and other work-related attitudes are determined by situational factors o Interactionist approach: to predict and understand organizational behavior, one must know something about an individual’s personality and the setting in which he or she works  Personality influences people’s attitudes and behavior depending on the situation  Trait activation theory: personality characteristics influence people’s behavior when the situation calls for a particular personality characteristics o key concept▯ “fit” by putting the right person in the right job, group, or organization and exposing different employees to different management styles Five Factor Model of Personality 1 1. Extraversion: sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful, and assertive. Extraversion is important for jobs that require a lot of interpersonal interaction (sales management) where being sociable, assertive, ambitious is important for success  Sociable, talkative VS. withdrawn, shy 2. Emotional stability/Neuroticism: the degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control. People with high emotional stability▯self confident. People with low emotional stability ▯ self-doubt  Stable, confident vs. depressed, anxious 3. Agreeableness: the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable. Agreeable people are warm, considerate, friendly, sympathetic. Less agreeable people are aloof, uncooperative.  Tolerant, cooperative vs. cold, rude 4. Conscientiousness: the degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-oriented. More conscientious people▯ dependable, positively motivated, hard-working/ Less conscientious people▯ lazy, impulsive  Dependable, responsible vs. careless, impulsive 5. Openness to experience: the extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas  Curious, original vs. dull, unimaginative *These dimensions are relatively independent** *Evidence that they have a genetic basis** Research evidence  There is evidence that each dimension is related to job performance and organizational citizenship behaviors  Research has also noted that the big five are related to other work behaviors o i.e.; conscientiousness is related to retention and attendance at work and is also an important antidote for counterproductive behaviors like theft, disciplinary problems  Also found to be related to motivation o Neuroticism, conscientiousness  One’s personality can influence one’s attitudes and behaviors 2 Locus of Control  Refers to an individual’s beliefs about the location of the factors that control their behavior o Internals vs. externals o Internals see stronger links between the effort they put into their jobs and the performance level they achieve (more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, perceive less stress) Self- Monitoring  The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships o Self monitors vs. low self-monitors o Self monitoring affects organizational behavior in the sense that it tends to gravitate towards jobs that require a degree of role-playing and the exercise of their self-presentation skills  i.e. sales, law, public relations o High self-monitors would have difficulty resisting social pressures (not always an advantage) Self- Esteem o The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation o The large difference between people with high and low self-esteem has to do with the plasticity of their thoughts, attitudes, behaviors – behavior plasticity o Organizations will generally benefit from a workforce with high self-esteem o They make more fulfilling career decisions, exhibit higher job satisfaction and job performance New Developments in Personality and Organizational Behavior A. Positive and Negative Affectivity o Positive affectivity▯ people who are high on this, experience positive emotions and moods, like joy and excitement and view the world in a positive light, including themselves and other people o Negative affectivity▯ people who experience negative emotions and moods like fear and anxiety and view the world in a negative light. They tend to be depressed and unhappy o Emotional dispositions that predict people’s general emotion tendencies o Influence people’s moods and attitudes at work 3 *These are independent dimensions* B. Proactive Personality  Taking initiative to improve one’s current circumstances or creating new ones  Involves challenging the status quo rather than passively adapting to present conditions  Proactive personality ▯ unconstrained by situational forces and act to change the environment C. General Self-Efficacy  A general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations  Motivational trait rather than an affective trait because it reflects an individual’s belief that he or she can succeed at a variety of tasks rather than how an individual feels about him or herself D. Core Self-Evaluations  Individuals hold evaluations about themselves and their self-worth or worthiness, competence, and capability o Self esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, neuroticism What is Learning?  Learning occurs when practice or experience lead
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