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Chapter 1

ANTH 203 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Carl Linnaeus, Hominidae, Pongidae

2 pages55 viewsWinter 2019

Course Code
ANTH 203
Lauriane Bourgeon

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Chapter 1 !
Polygenism = belief that humans came from multiple originals!
Monogenism = believe....one origin!
Usher: estimated when Earth was created by using the Old Testament!
Had no chronological evidence, just around 2 centuries of age !
Ray: first naturalist to use genus and species to classify animals and plants!
Linneaus: invented taxonomy = science of biological classification!
Build on Ray to create a more comprehensive classification of plants !
Studied diversity of animals!
Used physical characterization !
Created hierarchy names, called Linneaus Hierarchy / nomenclature!
Believed in immutability of species = each species exist from a separate entity !
So humans and apes cannot be closely related in descent!
Assigned humans Hominidae and great apes Pongidae!
Helped make sense of human nature due to comparisons of taxonomy between humans and
apes !
Tyson: apes was a species and not a mixture of species!
Buon: accepted the general notion of biological change!
Cuvier: opponent of modern concept of evolutionary change; catastrophism !
Lamarck: Proposed theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics; Argued that all organisms
make adjustments to their environment during their lifetime!
Theory of inheritance of acquired traits; adapt to environment!
Lyell: $British geologist; Strong proponent of uniformitarianism, arguing that slow, gradual
change was the way of the physical world.!
Hutton: One of the fathers of modern geology; Asserted a central principle: uniformitarianism;
Saw clear evidence of past worlds in the upthrusting of the Earth!
Geological processes happening today, happened in the past !
Darwin's early life:!
Mother died young!
Dad sent Darwin to med school at 16, hated it and went to Cambridge!
Cambridge important due to Henslow and Humbolt !
Ftzroy: ocer of navy and amateur naturalist; took Darwin instead of Henslow to travel with
Darwin spent 5 years exploring South America, Australia, Africa and many more!
Found galapagous: saw that tortoise on land have di shaped shells depending on needs and
environment !
Natural selection: dierential reproductive success over generations; Fitness = reproductive
3 Observations Darin made at Galapagous!
Island found species that were nowhere else!
Island didn't hold huge mammals like on land !
Animals on island were distinctive but similar to ones on land !
Found vestigial organs = body parts that serves no modern utility !
2 main points in Darwin's theory !
Life on earth was due to evolution not God and immutability theory !
Natural selection!
3 points and 2 deductions in his book !
Species have potential for growth that would stripe their food resources!
Natural and artificial selection!
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