ANTH 203 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Carl Linnaeus, Hominidae, Pongidae
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Chapter 1 !
Polygenism = belief that humans came from multiple originals!•
Monogenism = believe....one origin!•
Usher: estimated when Earth was created by using the Old Testament!
Had no chronological evidence, just around 2 centuries of age !•
Ray: ﬁrst naturalist to use genus and species to classify animals and plants!
Linneaus: invented taxonomy = science of biological classiﬁcation!
Build on Ray to create a more comprehensive classiﬁcation of plants !•
Studied diversity of animals!•
Used physical characterization !•
Created hierarchy names, called Linneaus Hierarchy / nomenclature!•
Believed in immutability of species = each species exist from a separate entity !•
So humans and apes cannot be closely related in descent!◦
Assigned humans Hominidae and great apes Pongidae!◦
Helped make sense of human nature due to comparisons of taxonomy between humans and •
Tyson: apes was a species and not a mixture of species!
Buﬀon: accepted the general notion of biological change!
Cuvier: opponent of modern concept of evolutionary change; catastrophism !
Lamarck: Proposed theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics; Argued that all organisms
make adjustments to their environment during their lifetime!
Theory of inheritance of acquired traits; adapt to environment!•
Lyell: $British geologist; Strong proponent of uniformitarianism, arguing that slow, gradual
change was the way of the physical world.!
Hutton: One of the fathers of modern geology; Asserted a central principle: uniformitarianism;
Saw clear evidence of past worlds in the upthrusting of the Earth!
Geological processes happening today, happened in the past !•
Darwin's early life:!
Mother died young!•
Dad sent Darwin to med school at 16, hated it and went to Cambridge!•
Cambridge important due to Henslow and Humbolt !•
Ftzroy: oﬃcer of navy and amateur naturalist; took Darwin instead of Henslow to travel with •
Darwin spent 5 years exploring South America, Australia, Africa and many more!•
Found galapagous: saw that tortoise on land have diﬀ shaped shells depending on needs and •
Natural selection: diﬀerential reproductive success over generations; Fitness = reproductive •
3 Observations Darin made at Galapagous!•
Island found species that were nowhere else!◦
Island didn't hold huge mammals like on land !◦
Animals on island were distinctive but similar to ones on land !◦
Found vestigial organs = body parts that serves no modern utility !‣
2 main points in Darwin's theory !•
Life on earth was due to evolution not God and immutability theory !◦
3 points and 2 deductions in his book !•
Species have potential for growth that would stripe their food resources!◦
Natural and artiﬁcial selection!◦
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