INTD 200 Chapter Notes -Participatory Rural Appraisal, Pentagon, Food Security

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A Framework for Livelihoods Analysis 12/5/12 1:22 AM
Thinking through diversified rural livelihoods
‘assets-mediating processes-activities’ framework
poverty reduction
sustainability
livelihood strategies
Originates from
Vulnerability and famines
Analysis of poverty-environment interactions
Livelihood systems approach to gender analysis
The asset vulnerability approach to urban poverty reduction
Research on sustainable rural livelihoods
Regard asset status of the poor as fundamental to understanding the options
open to them, the strategies they adopt for survival and their vulnerability to
adverse trends and events
Believe poverty policy should be about raising the asset status of the poor or
enabling existing assets that are idle to be used productively
Positive approach
Useful
Micro policies
Tracing local impact of macro policies
A framework for the analysis of rural livelihoods
It is the rural household that is taken as the main social unit to which the
framework is applied.
Assets
Starting point
Assets owned, controlled, claimed or in some other means accessed
by the household
Assets as stocks of capital: give rise to a flow of output, enable
future investment
Categories of Assets (Swift)
o Investments: human, individual, and collective assets
o Stores: food, items of value, money
o Claims: reciprocal claims on other households, claims on
patrons, government and the international community
Categories of Assets (food security context)
o Productive capital
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o Non-productive capital
o Human capital
o Income
o Claims
Natural Capital: land, water and biological resources that are
utilized by people to generate means of survival
o Not static
o Enhanced when it is brought under human control
o A gradient between low and high agro ecological potential
o Renewable and non-renewable resources
Physical Capital: created by economic production processes
o A producer good
o Purchased in order to create a flow of outputs into the future
o Infrastructural assets: roads, power lines, water supplies
Human Capital: labour available to the household
o Education, skills, health
Financial Capital and Substitutes: stocks of money to which the
household has access
o Savings, credits and loans
o Fungibility ! means of switching easily
Social Capital: reciprocity within communities and between
households based on trust deriving from social ties
Mediating Processes
Institutions and social relations
Social: gender, caste, class, age, ethnicity, religion
Institutions: formal rules, conventions, informal codes of behaviour
o Reduce uncertainty by establishing a stable structure to
human interaction
Organizations: groups of individuals bound by some common
purpose to achieve objectives
Livelihood diversification occurs more through necessity than choice
Activities and Livelihood Strategies
Livelihood strategies are dynamic
Activities that generate the means of household survival
Natural Resource Activities
o Collection or gathering
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