Chapter 1.docx

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McGill University
Kinesiology&Physical Education
EDKP 350
Celena Scheede- Bergdahl

Chapter 1, Physical Activity, Health and Chronic Disease 9/29/2012 11:49:00 AM OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the importance of regular physical activity 2. Understand dose- response relationships 3. Understand the concept of training volume 4. Identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease and sources of musculoskeletal disorder and disease 5. Appreciate the role of different exercise types in optimizing health * Assessments is good to have a baseline when you begin to see if there are improvements at the end and to see if someone is healthy or not Need pre and post Importance of Physical Activity Regular physical activity (PA) confers many health benefits and helps prevent chronic diseases Problem: We are NOT exercising enough!  Alarming percentage of US adults report no PA during leisure time  Similar trends exists globally- o WHO: approx 60% of global pop does not meet minimum recommendations (daily 30 min. moderate) o Similar trend in UK/Canada Target PA goal for the national health objective (also global target) - Minimum 30 mins a day - Moderate intensity - Most days if not all days of the week (~5) Problem: Discussion Increased reliance on technology has lessened work-related PA, as well as energy expenditure for activities of daily living More time to pursue leisure activities of daily living Is time a barrier? Laziness? * Time is the biggest barrier of work People tend to work 30% longer than before People also tend to be more stressed out People may not know how to make exercise a priority Question when interviewing and setting up people you have to ask IT IS well known that there is a relationship between physical inactivity and chronic disease * People that are more physically active tolerate treatments better Importance of Physical Activity <50% of U.S. adults meet minimum moderate-intensity activity recommendations ~25% of U.S. adults report no leisure time physical activity (LTPA) Fewer women than men meet recommendation Younger adults (18-24 yr) are more likely than elderly (65 yr) to meet recommendation *women more involved in child leering, don’t like to sweat=unattractive Global Challenge Physical Inactivity is a global problem Your goal: educate and motivate clients to adopt a physically active life style  PROBLEM SOLVE (90% of job) Physical inactivity may be the most important health problem in the 21 century Current Recommendations 1995 recommendation: Every U.S. adult should accumulate (CDC, ACSM)  > 30 min  moderate-intensity PA  on most, preferably all, days of the week Adopted by most agencies (Health Canada, CSEP, Canadian Diabetes…) *Moderate intensity exercise could be considered just a brisk walk 1995 recommendation was updated in 2007:  Recommended PA is in addition to ADLs  Intensity is expressed in METs (1 MET = someone sitting quietly)  Definitions for moderate and vigorous intensity PA  Resistance training recommendation  Balance and flexibility suggestion for older adults * Balance and flexibility must be incorporated as well as muscular strength as appose to just aerobic work, especially In the elderly population Ex. When cooking have to do bicep curls with a can AHA and ACSM Definitions Moderate intensity: 3 to 6 METs or 5 or 6 on 10 point rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale Results in noticeable increase in HR and lasts >10 min Vigorous intensity: 6 METs or 7 to 8 on 10-point RPE scale Results in rapid breathing and substantial increase in HR * 65-70-75% of max heart rate is moderate activity Vigorous Intensity- elevated breathing and heart rate normally 85% of max heart rate Current AHA and ACSM Recommendations Adults (>18years)  At least 30 mins moderate-intensity aerobic PA 5 days a week OR  20 mins vigor-intensity aerobic PA 3 days a week  Min 2 days a week of moderate to high intensity resistance training o 8-12 reps max (RM) for 18 to 64 years o 10-15 RM for older (>65)  Balance and flexibility for those >65years 2008 PA guidelines KEY message: 150 mins a week of moderate-intensity (100kcal/week) or 75 mins 1 week vigorous- intensity aerobic exercise = substantial health benefits for adults Adults of all ages should include muscle strengthening at least 2 days a week Children need 60 min PA daily:  Primarily moderate or vigorous intensity PA  Minimum 3 days a week vig PA  Min 3 days a week muscle and bone strengthening PA * Bone strengthening can be things such as monkey bars at the park HEALTH BENEFITS OF PA 1. Lowers risk of premature death and chronic conditions 2. Reduces depression, anxiety, abdominal obesity 3. Helps control weight 4. Improves sleep quality 5. Improves cognitive function 6. Maintains and improves bone density 7. Prevents falls 8. Increases functional health * Exercise has to be combined with eating People that are more active normally have better cognition (at a given age) Fascia pulls and increases bone disposition How much PA is enough? - Benefits based on training volume - Dose-response relationship: what kcal/wk expenditure required for specific improvement - Additional potential benefits for exceeding min recommended PA levels Dose-response relationship - 1000kcal/wk - Sufficient to reduce disease risk - A great initial goal for some - Enough to move from sedentary to low PA level - Insufficient to maintain healthy body weight - Insufficient to experience full health benefits Institute of Medicine Recommendation Greater dose (`200kcal.wk) required to - maintain healthy body weight - prevent weight gain - provide additional health benefits, and - move a person from sedentary to active PA level Diseases 9/29/2012 11:49:00 AM Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) - Major cause of death in U.S Europe - Includes hypertension, heart disease, congestive hearth failure & stroke - No longer a disease of men or elderly - Associated w
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