MGCR 352 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Consumer Behaviour, Cognitive Dissonance, Stockout

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
McGill University
Department
Management Core
Course
MGCR 352
Page:
of 4
Chapter 5
Consumer behavior
-the actions that a person takes in purchasing and using products and services,
including the mental and social processes that precede and follow these actions
Consumer purchase decision process
-the stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which product and
service to buy
1) Problem Recognition
-perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations that is big
enough to trigger a decision.
-can activate a consumer’s decision process by showing shortcomings of competing
(or currently owned) products
2) Information Search
-internal search
external search
--personal sources
--public sources
--marketer-dominated sources
-clarifies the problem for the consumer by yielding brand names, suggesting criteria
to use to judge the different brands, and developing consumer value perceptions
-brands you become aware of-awareness set
3) Alternative Evaluation
-evaluation criteria: factors that represent both the objective attributes of a brand
(such as locate speed) and the subjective ones (such as brand prestige) you use to
compare different products and brands.
The brands that meet your criteria make up your
Consideration set: the group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable
form among all the brands of which he or she is aware.
4) Purchase Decision
-from who to buy
-where to buy
5) Post-Purchase Behavior
-expectations either satisfied or dissatisfied
-satisfied tell 3 people, dissatisfied tell 9
-cognitive dissonance: feeling of post-purchase psychological tension or anxiety
Involvement and Problem-Solving Variations
-sometimes don’t engage in the 5-stage purchase decision process-skip or minimize
one or more stages depending on the level of involvement
involvement: the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the
consumer
1) extended problem solving
-each of the 5 stages used
2)Limited Problem Solving
-seek some information
3)Routine Problem Solving
-little effort making decision
involvement and marketing strategy: the level of involvement has important
implications for marketing strategy
-low involvement and brand market leadermust maintain quality, avoid stock-out,
advertising
Situational Influences
Have and impact on your purchase decision process: 1) the purchase task 2) social
surroundings 3) physical surroundings 4) temporal effects and 5) antecedent states
Psychological Influences on Consumer Behavior
Motivation and Personality
Motivations: the energizing force that causes behavior that satisfies a need
-physiological needs
-safety needs
-social needs
-personal needs
-self-actualization needs
Personality: a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations
National character: a distinct set of personality characteristics common among
people of a country or society
Self-concept: the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see
them (actual self vs ideal self)
Perception
The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to
create a meaningful picture of the world
Selective Perception-perception through filter, selective attention, selective
comprehension, selective retention
Sublime perception: means that you see or hear messages without being aware of
them
Perceived Risk
The anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase
but believes that there may be negative consequences.
Learning
Those behaviors that result from 1) repeated experience and 2) thinking
Behavioral Learning: the process of developing automatic responses to a situation
built up through repeated exposure to it.
Four variables: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement
Cognitive Learning: learning through thinking, reasoning, and mental problem
solving-involves making connections between two or more ideas
Brand Loyalty: a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single
brand over time.
Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes
Values: personally or socially preferable modes of conduct or state of existence that
are enduring
Beliefs: a consumer’s subjective perception of how well a product or brand performs
on different attributes
Attitude: a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a
consistently favorable or unfavorable way.
Attitude Change
Lifestyle
A mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources,
what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of
themselves and the world around them.
Socio-Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior
Personal Influences
Opinion Leadership: (leaders) those knowledgeable about users of particular
products and services, and so their opinions influence others’ choices
Word of Mouth: the influence of people during conversations
-buzz marketing: popularity created by consumer word of mouth
-viral marketing: the online version of word of mouth, involving the use of messages
‘infectious’ enough that consumers wish to pass them along to others through online
communication
Reference Groups
People to whom an individual looks as a basis fro self-appraisal or a source of
personal standards
-membership group
-aspirational group
-dissociative group (wants to maintain a distance)
Family Influence
Consumer Socialization: the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge,
and attitudes necessary to function as consumers

Document Summary

The actions that a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social processes that precede and follow these actions. The stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which product and service to buy: problem recognition. Perceiving a difference between a person"s ideal and actual situations that is big enough to trigger a decision. Can activate a consumer"s decision process by showing shortcomings of competing (or currently owned) products: information search. Clarifies the problem for the consumer by yielding brand names, suggesting criteria to use to judge the different brands, and developing consumer value perceptions. Brands you become aware of-awareness set: alternative evaluation. Evaluation criteria: factors that represent both the objective attributes of a brand (such as locate speed) and the subjective ones (such as brand prestige) you use to compare different products and brands. The brands that meet your criteria make up your.