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Chapter 3

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PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

Chapter 3: Perception th th [For January 19 and 24 Lectures] -grid on blurry photo provides the illusion of clarity -Research done on perpetual experiences caused by head injury or stroke (lack of proper blood flow to the brain) -Most notably, VISUAL AGNOSIA: able to see objects/visual information but unable to recognize or identify them eyes and primary visual systems are fine, but cannot cognitively interpret the information they see Ex, person who has ASSOCIATIVE AGNOSIA: a type of visual agnosia marked by difficulty naming objects o Shown a picture of a donkey, says it is a painting of Napoleon, a lamp with a light in it is a person, swan is giraffe, etc. o Although patients sometimes identify objects correctly o Patients with associative agnosia can also reproduce objects by drawing them Visual agnosia is specific to the visual domain; patients can identify objects by means of using other senses like touch -Another phenomena is individuals with TIMES SPACES: the perceptual experience of time units (days, months etc) as occupying spatial locations outside of the body. People with time spaces see or hear the names of months or days outside of themselves, ex. in an oval form in front of the face, or around the waist, and it goes wherever they go. Can use it like a calendar -Perception: processing sensory info so that it produces a meaningful understanding of the information -important to remember the dependency of perception on the external environment (the STIMULUS; entity in the external world that can be perceived by an observer) and the internal knowledge of the observer has not always been like this, will look back at the older extreme views Perception as a Function of the Environment -Gibson very influential here -Gibsons THEORY OF ECOLOGICAL OPTICS; proposal that perception involves directly absorbing the visual information present in the environment sensory organs receive a wide amount of information that can be apprehended and used as a guide to action perception is a function of stimulation, and stimulation is a function of the environment, hence perception is a function of the environment did not see the need for internal mental representations of objects, perception is accomplished mostly by the sensory organs themselves! the senses considered as perceptual systems -AMBIENT OPTICAL ARRAY (AOA): all the visual information that is present at a particular point of view from every different viewing point, a unique pattern of light enters the eyes because it is reflected from and emitted by a unique combination of surfaces-> these manifestations were sufficient for us to unambiguously perceive structures -TEXTURE GRADIENTS: gradual changes in the pattern of a surface that is normally assumed to be uniform, which provides information about surface characteristics such as whether the surfaces is receding or curved example; cobblestone pathways, assuming all the bricks are the same, ones that appear smaller make us perceive it as being further away -TOPOLOGICAL BREAKAGE: when two different textures intersect, they create a discontinuity in the patter, provides useful indicator for edges of objects -Surfaces of different degrees of smoothness reflect light in different ways and the nature of the reflected light thus provides useful information about the smoothness of the surface rough surface reflects light more widely than a smooth surface thus the degree of SCATTER-REFLECTION (degree to which light scatters when reflected from a surface) tells us about the nature of an objects surface -A critical aspect of Gibsons paradigm was that he included observer and environment MOTION as a fundamental component of perception other classical theories relied on assumption of a fixed or monocular perspective; illusions Gibson pointed out when you move around, the illusion vanished, entire optical array undergoes change; he was not so concerned with illusions , more reacting against these studies -TRANSFORMATION; theory proposed by Gibson; the change of the optical information hitting the eye when the observer moves through the environment (change in way surfaces project light into retina as you move around, thus changing the perceived image) -Focus on movement led to concept of OPTIC FLOW FIELD; movement of objects or the observer through the environment produces changes in what is seen everyday example; view from car window while driving, things straight in front seem to be stationary while things at edges of visual field seem to be moving quickly Pattern Recognition -focus on how we build internal representations of objects during the process of recognition This was not Gibsons goal, he focused on how information is directly perceived -Like Gibson emphasized the characteristics of the stimulus, but do not consider the array of light information reflecting from surfaces of objects- primary focus is on the specific objects and patterns -PATTERN RECOGNITION (ability to recognize an event as an instance of a particular category of event); came from computer science, where it refers to a computers ability to identify configurations such as the account numbers In real-world, ability to recognize words in a sentence as words not meaningless squiggles, a cylindrical object with a handle is a coffee cup -Recognizing a configuration involves contact between the emerging PERCEPT (meaningful interpretation of sensory information) and memory -MEMEORY TRACE: the trace that an experience leaves in the brain (example, shown the le
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