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Anthro 1Z03- Ch 7 and 9.docx

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Hendrik Poinar

Human Origins and Evolution (Ch.7) Anthropology 1Z03- March 3, 2010 th “INCLASS LEARNING ASSIGNMENT”- 1 Hour- Chapters 7,8,9 - Wednesday March 10 , 2010 Review the first two slides – terms and also concepts Traits for Humans o Bipedalism o Changes in the an long bone lengths toward habitual and obligate bipeds o The most efficient locomotion for us (based on the change that occurred) o Foramen Magnum o Seen in a more centralized location o Big toe o Big toe is non divergent (non grasping or opposable) – vs. the great apes o The big toe (hallux) is key trait for rearrangement o Early trait for hominids o Note: see footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania o Round heels o Double arches in foot o Non-honing chewing (diastema) o Jaw muscles – temple area has different muscle structure (apes = massive muscle on skull) o Crushing vs. on slicing up vegetation/plant foods o Teeth= think enamel (seeds and nuts) vs thin enamel (seen in pogids- i.e. plants + fruits) Where are these found? o Ease Africa and South Africa o North- Central Africa- Chad o Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7-6 mya) o Teeth show non-honing, central foramen magnum (bi-pedalism)  “Derived Traits”-not original, but stemming from adaptation or mutation o Still had the saggital crest, small brain case, massive brow ridges  “Primate traits” more apelike, not yet modified  Shows intermediate phase to modern hominids o Orrin tugenensis (6 mya) – found in Kenya o Jaw, teeth, arm and leg bones o Traits pointing to bipedalism- femoral head = different from that of ape-like creatures o More movement in hip bone o Ardipithecus- to species recognized for genus o Ardipithecus kadabba (5.5 – 5.6 mya)- teeth only  Non- hoaning chewing  Some polishinging on outside of lower P3 suggests  See “perihoning”--- look for picture in slides o Ardipithecus ramidus (4.4 mya)- Ethiopia  Have thin enamel (same with previous species)- unlike hominids  Curved foot phalanges (toes_ indicate arboreal activity  Femur and pelvis show bipedalism  Biped, chimp like, Above four species suggest o Reduction in forest cover = walking further in hot sun = bipedalism o OR… may be earlier biped part way through Miocene in more open environment o Australopithecine o Autralopithecus = extinct hominids o Dated from 4.2 mya to ~ 1.8 mya o Habitual Biped, robust teeth and jaw and ape sized brains o # of species- either gracile (thin and fine boned teeth, jaw, face) and robust (heavier) o Only found in Africa so far… o Relatively short (long arms and short legs) Human Origins and Evolution (Ch.7) (Cont’d) Anthropology 1Z03- March 3, 2010 o Have small brain (<600cc) o Weight = 29-44 kg o Were mainly prey (i.e. in trees for dinner of others) o Australopithecus anamensis (4.2-3.9 mya) o Hard bones have remained o Had more of a parallel- U shaped jaw (where as humans were parabolic) o Primitive U shape exists o Bipedal, mixed anatomy, legs are short, not an effective walker
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