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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Part 2.docx

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McMaster University
Antonio Sorge

Hinduism • Over 900 million people, 15%, of people are Hindu • 97% live in India (80% of their pop is Hindus) • Core texts: o Four vedas – Sanskrit (1200 – 900 bce) • Famous stories: o Mahabharata – story of war between two pilgrimages (Krishan is imp.) o Ramanayana • Darshan – seeking the diety • Lower caste offering – meat and alcohol • Upper caste offering – flower, rice and fruit A Nayar Fertility Ritual • Remedy of curse causing infertility in women • They light incense, pray to serpent gods, and offer flower • All night ritual: women paint serpent gods on the floor, music, someone goes into trance so people can speak to god/get blessings through her Buddhism • Founding figure: Siddhartha Gautama • Started in northern India • Less than 1% pop in India now • 400 million, 6% world pop • Everyone has potential to through good deeds to achieve a better rebirth to finaly release from Samsara • Samsara: cycle of birth, death and reincarnation • Many pilgrims come visit Sarnath, where Buddha have first teaching o Gaya, where he gained enlightenment Local spirits and Buddhism in southeast asia • In Myanmar, Buddhism and indigenous traditions coexist without one being dominant • Indigenous: bad things happen because of actions of capricious spirits called nats Judaism • Early writings were called the Pentateuch (also called five books of Moses or Torah): established theme of exile and return as a paradigm for Judaism that endures today • Torah explains relationship between the supernatural and human realm and guides people in how to carry out the worldview through appropriate actions • Impt to judasism is to identify what is wrong with present and how to escape, overcome and survive it • Jewish life is interpreted as tension between exile and return • Oppose abortion and death penalty • Siddur: prayer book • Telling truth is imp • Kosher: cant mix dairy with meat • Hasidism jewish: born to jewish mom • Reform jewish: born to jewish dad, non jewish mom • 15 million pop; 50% in north America, 25% in sireal, 20% in Europe and Russia Whos who at the Kotel • Most sacred place • Also known as the western wall at jeruselum (reli shrine and pilgrimage place) • Kotel located at edge of temple mount (haram sharif) – sacred to muslims, jewish and Christians 185 Directions of Religiou Change • Indeginous protect their sacred land and do not let other develop them into commercial areas Revitalization movements • Religious movements to re-establish that’s been threatened o Threats can be outside forces o New practice or breliefs • Look to the past and attempt to recover lost and suppressed religious beliefs and practices • This helps people make sence of changing world • i.e ghost dance movement – dance in circles as a way to combat the threat of the ending world • i.e cargo cult – emerged in Melanesia as response to westernization o they tried to acquire western goods (cargo) to gain status contested sacred sites • area for conflict: Jeruselum how do world religions illustrate globalization and localization • syncretism: when a new religions moves into a culture, it may be blended with local systems What is art? • Application of imagination, skill and style to matter, movement, and sound that goes beyond the purely practical o i.e well told story, decorating food on a plate o does not limit any religion in this def • fine art: rare, expensive o artist trained in western classical tradition o included in colledge courses ‘fine arts’ • all other arts are less fine: primitive, folk, ethnic, crafts o characterized by opposite features to that of fine arts  artist does not receive formal training  not for sale  anonymous artist  utilitarian: every day use • esthetics: socially acceptable notion of quality o westerns believed non-westerns had none/poorly developed o but everyone has them • ethno-esthetics: culturally specific def of what is art • Yoruba of Nigeria wood carvings: o Middle age o Not to abstract or real: portray general person o Symmetrical • Strong ties between linguistic and cultural anthro: analyze oral and tape recordings Studying art in society • African rhythm and African sensibility: ethnographer had to learn to play the drums to build rapport and gain understanding o John chernoff realized that heart sees before hands o Was initiated to learn o Made his wrist smarter by looking for ingredients in a forster: ‘cat chasing a mouse’ = ‘cat hands’  wrists that turn fast which is needed for drummers Focus on the artist • Social status: o Goldworkers respected in mexico o American indian groups of pacfic northwestern coast male carvers and painters had higher social standing • Gender differences o Navajo of Arizona: women weave and men do siversmithing o Carribbean: women of African descent make carvings of calabashes (large gourds) o Us: graphic artists are mostly men Microcultures, art and power o Art form and style associate with microcultures identity and pride o Ie. Berbers of morocco associate with woolen carpets, maya Indians known for woven and embroidered blouses, and inut of Alaska known for stone carvings o Dive-bomb: tipping during male strip dance where females get on ther hand and knees and tuck money into dancers g-string  Male strip dance is highly regulated and women are subordinated Performance arts o Ethnomusicology: cross-cultural study of music Study music, social position of musicians, how music interacts with religion and healing, change in music tradition Music and gender in Malaysia o Focuses on gender differences in access to performance roles o Culture materialist perspective: predicts o Egalitarian socitiies have egalitarian views like Temiar, foragers of the highlands of peninsulas Malaysia o Balance in music traditions and complementarity b/t men and women o Marriage is mutual decision, often ends in separation, bilineal patterns, serial monogamy is common o Men have edge in ritual and political phere (village leaders)  Spirits enter through men singing  But female sing chorus which is also imp  Overall community singing is imp Country music and globalization in brazil o Musica sertaneja, Brazilian music o Adopt western (US) music but blends with local stuff o Conveys messages about family, politics, globalization, intimacy, genders o Dupla: two brothers (may not be biologically related) sing in sink, and none dominates the other o Emphasizes kinship and caring in Brazilian culture Theater and myth in south India o Myths, rituals, performance, verbal, dance o Kathakali: combination of myth (mahabharat, and ramayan), acting and music o Makeup and costume determines the character they are playing from the myths o 6 diff types of characters ranging from refined to vulgar o Green make up: kings and heros o Black: vulgar o Black with white and red dots: worst Architecture and decorative arts o Interwoven with other parts of culture o Reflects and protects social rank, and class differences, also gender, age and ethnic difference o Decorative arts, interior
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