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Chapter 2

ANTHROP 1AB3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Midlife Crisis, Oscar Lewis, Social Inequality


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 1AB3
Professor
Antonio Sorge
Chapter
2

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Chapter 2: Identity
1
Chapter 2: Identity
Culture, Personality, and Identity (pg. 49)
Enculturation is when culture is passed onto infants and other members of that
society through formal and informal process
Margret Mead an anthropologist conducted fieldwork in the 1930s. Her findings
indicated that:
o Culture is developed in a person, it is not something they are born with
o The way the infant was cared for leads to different personalities
Ruth Benedict argued that culture promotes distinct personalities
Cultural Configuration are traits that has been mixed to form patterns shared by
everyone in that society
Ethnocentric classify cultures according to Western psychological values and
features
Reductionist: emphasize only one or two features
Totalizing: The use of local variation to build a more powerful national character
o Ex. “the French”, “the English”, “the Japanese” *Notice they have THE*
Class and Personality (pg. 51)
Image of the limited good
o Was proposed by George Foster’s
o This model co-exist with personality traits (Ex. Jealousy)
o This model states that, since supplies are limited, as some people become
more wealthier, others will become poorer
Ex. A pie being split equally for 6 people. If one person takes more
than one piece than the division of the remaining pie will be less
for the 5 people.
Culture of poverty explains the personality/behavior of the poor and why
poverty continues
o This theory was proposed by Oscar Lewis (1966)
Person Centred Ethnography (pg.52)
Person centred ethnography is a research on individuals. They see how an
individuals psychology and subjective experience shape their culture
o Individuals and culture are interactive
Study of individuals provides clear examples of ethnography and ethnology
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