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Commerce (1,634)
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Chapter 5


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McMaster University

Commerce 2BA3 Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Effort - The first aspect of motivation is the strength of the persons work-related behaviour, or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job Persistence - Persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks Direction - Quality of a persons work - Direction of a persons work-related behaviour - Have to work hard Goals - All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed Extrinsic and intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied - Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence derived from performing ones job Extrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others - They have one theory in common Self-determination theory: a theory of motivation that considers whether peoples motivation is autonomous or controlled Autonomous motivation: When people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors Controlled motivation: When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward - The availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself - The notion is that when extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then the motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases Motivation and Performance Performance: The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization 2 forms of intelligence that is particularly important for performance: 1) General Cognitive Ability - A persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources - Reflects an individuals overall capacity and efficiency for processing information, and it includes a number of cognitive abilities that are required to perform mental tasks - Predicts learning and training success - Predicts job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations - Even better predictor of performance for more complex and higher-level jobs that require the use of more cognitive skills and involve more information processing - Necessary for performance 2) Emotional Intelligence - The ability to understand and manage ones own and others feelings and emotions - Involves the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about emotions, and manage emotions in oneself and others - Individuals high in EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action 4 Branches Emotional Intelligence 1) Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others - Involves the ability to perceive emotions and to accurately identify ones own emotions and the emotions of others - Basic level and is necessary to be able to perform the other steps in the model 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking - Refers to the ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to guide and facilitate ones thinking and reasoning - One is able to use emotions in functional ways, such as making decisions - Involves being able to shift ones emotions and generate new emotions that can help open to see things in different ways and from different perspectives 3) Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions - Involves being able to understand emotional information, the determinants and consequences of emotions, and how emotions evolve and change over time - At this stage, people understand how different situations and events generate emotions as well as how they and others are influenced by various emotions4) Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals - Involves the ability to manage ones own and others feelings and emotions as well as emotional relationships - This is the highest level of EI because it requires one to have mastered the previous stages - At this stage, an individual is able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her own emotions as well as others emotions to suit the situation - EI has found that it predicts performance in number of areas, including job performance and academic performance Need Theories of Work Motivation - The first 2 theories of motivation are need theories Need theories: Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance - Needs are physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals can satisfy by acquiring c
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