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Canada (158,081)
Commerce (1,633)
Chapter 4


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McMaster University

Commerce 2BC3 Chapter 4: Redefining Jobs and Job Analysis Work: Effort directed toward accomplishing results Job: Grouping of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that constitute the total work assignment for employees Position: The group of tasks, duties, and responsibilities performed by an individual employee - Tasks, duties, and responsibilities may change over time therefore the job may change - When all the jobs in an organization are added together, they should equal the amount of work that the organization needs to have done Changing Nature of Work and HR Management - Domestic increases in organizational productivity in many industries have resulted in significant changes in work and jobs - A focus on productivity has led to replacing employees with technology, international outsourcing of work to lower-wage countries, and more flexibility in how and when work is done - Jobs that are routinized are being affected - Jobs and work that cannot be routinized and that require significant communication or managerial capability are less likely to be affected by job losses - The nature of jobs and work will continue to be affected as the drive for productivity and global competitiveness - Organizational values and strategies linked to customer needs affect the nature of work, which in turn influences the relationship of jobs, people, and HR management activities - In HR management, the most important activities associated with jobs are the following: Workflow analysis: Examining how work flows through an organization, in order to improve operating efficiency Re-engineering: Improving productivity by changing the jobs themselves Job design: Dividing up organizational work into jobs in order to utilize employee capabilities effectively Job analysis: Analyzing what people do in jobs currently Job descriptions and job specifications: Identifying the tasks, duties, and responsibilities in jobs, capabilities needed for people to perform jobs well Workflow analysis: Study of the way work (inputs, activities, and outputs) moves through an organization - Begins with an examination of the quantity and quality of the desired actual outputs - The activities that lead to the outputs are evaluated to see if they are achieving the desired outputs - The inputs must be assessed to determine if they make the outputs and activities more efficient and better Technology and Workflow - Technology must be viewed as a part of workflow analysis Business Process Re-Engineering - Measures for improving such activities as product development, customer service, and service delivery - Consists of 3 phases: 1) Rethink - Examine how the current organization of work and jobs affects customer satisfaction and service 2) Redesign - Analyze how jobs are put together, the workflow, and how results are achieved; then redesign the process as necessary 3) Retool - Look at new technologies as opportunities to improve productivity, service quality, and customer satisfaction - Key is to providing effective and continuous communication; doing detailed planning, and training managers on the BPR process Job Design - Organizing tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a productive unit of work - Addresses the content of jobs and the effect of jobs on employees - Identifying the components of a given job is an integral part of job design - Is receiving greater attention for 3 major reasons: 1) Can influence performance in certain jobs, especially those where employee motivation can make a substantial difference. Lower costs resulting from reduced turnover and absenteeism also are related to the effective design of jobs 2) Can affect job satisfaction. Because people are more satisfied with certain job configurations than with others, identifying what makes a good job critical 3) Job design can affect both physical and mental health. Problems such as hearing loss, backache, and leg pain sometimes can be traced directly to job design, as can stress, high blood pressure, and heart disease Person/job fit: Matching characteristics of people with characteristics of jobsNature of Job Design - Simplify the job tasks and responsibilities Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment Job enlargement: Broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed Job enrichment: Increasing the depth of a job by adding responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, or evaluating the job Examples - Giving the employee an entire job rather than just a piece of the work - Giving more freedom and authority so that the employee can perform the job as he or see sees fit - Increasing the employees accountability for work by reducing external control - Expanding assignments so that the employee can learn to do new tasks and develop new areas of expertise - Giving feedback reports directly to the employee rather than only to management Job Rotation - Process of shifting a person from job to job - It develops an employees capabilities for doing several different jobs Characteristics of Jobs - Skill variety, task identity, and task significance affect the meaningfulness of work - Autonomy stimulates responsibility - Feedback provides knowledge of results Skill Variety - Extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion - Not to be confused with multi-tasking Task Identity - Extent to which the job includes a whole identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome Task Significance - Impact the job has on other people - A job is more meaningful if it is important to other people for some reason Autonomy - Extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling - More autonomy leads to a greater feeling of person
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