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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4: Hazards, Recognition, Assessment & Control (RAC) - Hazard: any condition or changing set of circumstances that has the potential to cause an injury (damaged ladder, icy porch, frayed wire… - Event: any activity that may occur on a day-to-day basis as a direct or indirect result of some human or human-related undertaking (operating a forklift or work processor) - Incident: any observable human activity that is an unwanted event or occurrence that had or might have had a –‘tve impact on the ppl, property or process involved (ex: accidents & close calls = not wearing safety glasses, wearing lose clothes around machinery…) - Accident: any unwanted event that causes harm to ppl, property or processes  due to direct contact w/ some form of energy that is greater than the strength of the body = electrical, mechanical, thermal, radioactive, chemical, kinetic, gravitational - Injury: any trauma, physical or mental, direct or indirect, acute or chronic, experienced by a human o Overt traumatic injuries: injuries resulting from coming into contact w/ an energy source (cuts, fractures, burns from falling or being struck by material, CUIB)  CIUB: when workers get Caught In, Under or B/w machinery  Prevention: 1) recognize the source of the hazard 2) eliminate the hazard 3) protect workers from exposure to the hazard o Overexertion injuries: caused by excessive physical effort, lifting, repetitive motions & awkward working positions (CTS, tendonitis, back pain)  LOW BACK PAIN = 50% of musculoskeletal complaints & is the FASTEST growing - Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI): tennis, telephone operator’s & golfer’s elbow, writer’s cramp & postal worker’s shoulder, CTS…becoming the MOST common occupational injury = 1/20 Cndns over 20yrs have experienced RSI. Due to: o Unnatural joint position or posture o Force application to hinge joints o Activity repetition o Pre-existing conditions - Awkward working positions: strains & sprains result from bending, twisting & working in awkward positions (ex: dancers, artists, musicians) - Hazard ID: 4 factors to be considered: 1. Ergonomic factors: costs over $400M in BC (5yrs). Workplaces that are ergonomic can ^productivity by 33%, decreases errors by 93% & user satisfaction… The GOAL is to design a work system in which the methods, machines, equipment, layout & env’t are matched w/ the physical & behavioural characteristics of the worker a. Anthropometric: study of measurements of the human body to det. Diff. in individuals or grps of ppl (height, weight, reach, strength…) 2. Human Factors: when a person causes an accident by commission, poor judgment or omission (Failing to do something)  predictable action is something the culprit did knowingly (ex: knows ladder may break, uses it anyways). Random even is by its nature difficult to predict (ex: worker fell off ladder b/c another worker walked into it). a. Unsafe act: a deviation from stnd job procedures or practices that ^a worker’s exposure to a hazard (substandard practice) 3. Situational factors: unsafe conditions, exist when a company does not provide proper equipment, tools or facilities or when its operations are unsafe. 4 groups: a. defects in design b. substandard construction c. improper storage of hazardous materials d. inadequate planning, layout & design Ex: improper lighting, defective equipment, poor ventilation, physical agents…. 4. Env’tal Factors: includes physical, chemical, biological & ergonomic factors, all play a direct or indirect role in accidents (ex: noise, vibration, illumination, toxins, viruses…) - Hazard ID Programs: means of identifying hazards in the workplace, rely on trained safety experts o Walk-through survey: a survey in which a safety pro walks through a worksite & notes hazards o Safety sampling: (behaviour/activity sampling) a systematic survey procedure undertaken by safety personnel who record their observations of unsafe practices on a sampling document (ex: observe workers w/out hardhats) - Task analysis: the examination of a job’s many components, includes a list of tasks, the job, # of workers, time spent/tasks, importance of tasks… - Hazard analysis: used to acquire specific hazard & failure info about a given system  technique that examines a system for the most probable hazards having the severest consequences in order to est. Correct/control mechanisms o Positive tree: shows how a job SHOULD be done o Fault tree: illustrates things that can go WRONG - Risk: the probability of an injury expressed as a % o Prob x Consequence x Exposure - Probability: the chance of likelihood that an event will occur  is effect by experience, exposure proximity, illumination… - Exposure: how regularly, or the # of times a contact is made w/the event - Consequences: the results of severity of the injury o Catastrophic: may cause death o Critical: may cause severe injury o Marginal: may cause minor injury o Negligible: probably would NOT affect
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