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Canada (158,052)
Psychology (1,303)
PSYCH 1X03 (254)
Joe Kim (241)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Chapter 4: Language 1. Language is symbolic 2. Involves arbitrary associations o Allows various languages to use different sounds to label the same item o Words whose sounds are associated with their meanings: onomatopoeia ( meow, splash, hiccup) 3. Language is productive: small number of components to produce and understand a wide range of symbols o Made up of phonemes: smallest sound units of language (40 in English) 4. Language is rule governed Section 2: structure of Language Morphemes: Symbols of language  Symbols of language used to transmit information  Smallest units of sound that contain information  Lady – 1 morph  Ladybug – 2 morphs (lady/bug)  Bugs- 2 morphs ( bug/s)  Laptop computer- 4 morphs ( lap/top/compute/r) Phonemes: the building blocks of symbols  Morpheme can be broken down into its constituent sounds  Drag – 4 phonemes ( d/r/a/g)  Some are complicated like “c” ( s/k sound)  Consistent letter-to-sound correspondence, so that a given letter will always make the same sound – transparent orthographies Syntax: the rules of constructing sentences  Grammar  Refers to the rules that govern how we put words together to form a sentence  Order in which words occur in a sentence ( subject-verb-object)  Gender assignment( French)  Automatically understood Semantics: the meaning of it all  Refer to the meaning contained within  Can have meaning and be understood without syntax  Understand different meanings for a word depending on the context in which it is presented o The word “present” can be used in different contexts Section 3: Language Development  table 5.4 page 149 Universal phonemic sensitivity o ability to discriminate between virtually all phonemes even before they learn language o conditioned head turn procedure( playing two diff. Phonemes with speakers ba/da) o process of losing the ability to distinguish between contrasts in sounds not used in native language – perceptual narrowing o UPS is lost during first year of life o When people talk to infants they tend to use higher pitch – infant- directed speech Foreign accent syndrome o Damage in brocas area- difficulty in production of speech o Damage in wernickes area- speak fluently, but speech makes no sense o FAS- suffered from a head injury or stroke that damaged areas in the left hemisphere involved in motor control of speech  Able to speak their native language but seem to have a foreign accent  Damage in the cerebellum Early language skills  Still face procedure: adult looks at an infant while maintaining a non –responsive neutral facial expression  Cooing: begins at the ages of 2-4 months, making sounds that combine consonants with “oo” and “ahh”  Pragmatics: allow children to communicate appropriately and affectively in a social situation  Babbling: 4-6 months  Holophrastic phase : where a single word is used to indicate the meaning of an entire sentence ( 10-18 months)  Naming explosion/ word spu
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