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Chapter 12

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Judith Shedden

Psych 2B03: Theories of Personality Chapter 12: Psychoanalysis After Freud: Neo-Freudians, Object Relations, and Current Research Latter-Day Issues and Theorists - Common themes of Neo-Freudian thought:  View sex as less important than Freud did: libido is general motivation toward life and creativity  Less emphasis on unconscious mental processes and more emphasis on conscious thought  Ego Psychology: focuses on perception, memory, learning and rational, conscious thinking  Less emphasis on instinctual drives and mental life as the source of psychological difficulties, and focuses on interpersonal relationships - Inferiority and compensation: Alder  Social interest: desire to relate positively and productively with other people  Organ inferiority: individuals are motivated to attain equality or superiority over other people; they try to accomplish this to compensate for whatever they felt in childhood was their weakest aspect  Masculine protest: particular kind of compensation for the past seen in the desire of an adult to act and become powerful  Inferiority complex and lifestyle - The collective unconscious, persona, and personality – Jung:  Collective unconscious: proposition that all people share certain unconscious ideas because of the history of the human species  Archetypes: fundamental images of people that are contained in the collective unsconsious  Persona: social mask one wears in public dealings  Anima: idea, or prototype, of the female, as held in the mind of a male  Animus: idealized image of male as held in the female mind  Distinction between people who are psychologically turned inwards (introverts) and those who are oriented toward the external world and other people (extraverts)  Classification of four basic ways of thinking: rational thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting, predominance varies in different people - Feminine psychology and basic anxiety – Horney:  Disagreed with Freud’s portrayal of women as obsessed by “penis envy” and the desire to be male  Adult behaviour is based on efforts to overcome the basic anxiety acquired in childhood  Attempts to avoid anxiety can cause neurotic needs, needs that people feel but that are neither realistic nor truly desirable - Psychosocial development – Erikson:  Not all conflicts take place in the unconscious mind  Certain basic conflicts arise at various stages of life: emphasize on conflicts experienced at each stage and their possible outcomes  Basic trust versus mistrust: first stage, child learns whether needs and wants will be met, ignored, or overindulged. Develops hope and confidence that basic needs will be met  Autonomy versus shame and doubt: child begins to control bowels and other bodily functions, learns language, and begins to receive orders from adult authority, ‘who’s in charge?’  Initiative versus guilt: fantasies which are good for a child but if adults do not respond to them well, these thoughts can lead the child to feel guilty and to back off from taking initiative in their development towards adulthood. Adult morality.  Industry versus inferiority: develop skills and attitudes to succeed in the world of work and contribute to society. Control of imagination and unfocused energy and get on with tasks of developing competence, workmanship, and a way of organizing life tasks  Identity versus identity confusion: individuals choose values and goals that are consistent, personally meaningful and useful.  Intimacy versus isolation: find an intimate life partner to share important experiences and further development, rather than becoming isolated and lonely  Generativity versus stagnation: does she settle into passive comfort, or begin to turn her concerns to the next generation  Integrity versus despair: person regret earlier mistakes or develop wisdom - Object relations theory – Klein and Winnicott:  We can only relate to other people via the images of them we hold  Superego was built from childhood identifications with important people, and people repeat important psychological patterns in new relationships through the mechanism of transference  Observation that every relationship has elements of satisfaction and frustration, or pleasure and pain, ex.: first important object in infant’s l
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