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Chapter 8

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Gautam Ullal

Psych 2E03: Sensory Processes Chapter 8: Perceiving Depth and Size Introduction - Cue approach to depth perception: focuses on identifying information in the retinal image that is correlated with depth in the scene - Occlusion: cue that one object is in front of another - Learn connection between cue and depth through our previous experience with the environment - Oculomotor: cues based on our ability to sense the position of our eyes and the tension in our eye muscles - Monocular: cues that work with one eye - Binocular: cues that depend on two eyes Oculomotor cues - Convergence: inward movement of the eyes that occurs when we look at nearby objects - Accommodation: change in the shape of the lens that occurs when we focus on objects at various distances - We can feel the inward movement of the eyes and the tightening of eye muscles - Convergence and accommodation indicate when an object gets close and are useful up to a distance of about arm’s length, with convergence being the more effective of the two Monocular cues - Work with only one eye - Accommodation - Pictorial cues: source of depth information that can be depicted in a picture  Occlusion: occurs when one object hides or partially hides another from view. Partially hidden object is seen as being farther away, indicating relative distance.  Relative height: objects with their bases higher in the field of view are usually seen as being more distant. When objects are above the horizon, being lower in the field of view indicates more depth.  Relative size: when two object are of equal size, the one that is farther away will take up less of your field of view than the one that is closer.  Perspective convergence: when parallel lines extend out, they are perceived as converging as distance increases  Familiar size: when we judge distance based on our prior knowledge of sizes of objects. Most effective when other information about depth is absent.  Atmospheric perspective: occurs when more distant objects appear less sharp and often have a slight blue tint  Texture gradient: elements that are equally spaced in a scene appear to be more closely packed as distance increases  Shadows: shadows that are associated with objects can provide information regarding the locations of these objects. Also enhance the three-dimensionality of objects. - Movement-produced cues:  Movement parallax: occurs when as we move, nearby objects off to the side of our direction of movement appear to glide rapidly past us, but more distant objects appear to move more slowly. This is due to the distance they must travel on the retina  Deletion and accretion: related both to movement parallax and overlap because they occur when overlapping surfaces appear to move relative to one another, are especially effective for detecting depth at an edge.  Deletion: occurs when a farther object is covered by a nearer object due to sideways movement of an observer relative to the objects  Accretion: occurs when the observer moves in the other direction, so the further object is uncovered Binocular Depth Information - Binocular disparity: difference in the images in the let and right eyes  Corresponding retinal points: places on each retina that would overlap if one retina could be lid on top of the other  Horopter: imaginary circle that passes through the point of fixation
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