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PSYCH 3M03 (10)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - September 10 and 12, 2013 - PSYCH 3M03

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Aadil Merali Juma

PSYCH 3M03 Chapter 2: Evolution September 10/12, 2013 I. Evolution of Motivation  Major dimensions of motivation (clearly reflect Darwinian processes): o Survival – thirst, hunger, elimination, temperature regulation, pain and escape behaviour, fear and avoidance  Involuntary; inborn through genetics; not through learning  Avoidance of events that may injure or kill you or your kin – eg/ don’t fulfill hunger, you will die; eg/ don’t avoid extreme cold, you will die and not reproduce  natural selection  Suicide seemingly is an exception, however there are mechanisms that may show that this is an adaptive mechanism o Reproduction – courtship, sexual behaviour, pregnancy and nursing, nurturance of offspring favoring kin  Emerges at puberty; innate (doesn’t need to emerge at birth)  Choosing not to reproduce seems like an exception; there is an evolutionary logic that may cause this (eg/ birth control = evolutionary lag)  We often forget that we are affected by this as much as other animals o Competition – threat and aggression, territoriality and dominance  Humans are high quality, heavy investment, low numbers, K selected mammals; yet humans can still face challenges  Anger and other emotions – threat gestures  Aggressive behaviour is present in humans; similarities and differences with other mammals  Individual Darwinian Selection o Gene (promotes survival and reproduction Gene (passed on to future generations) o Gene (fails to produce survival and reproduction) --x--> Gene is gone  Individual; Gene (helps kin survive + reproduce but may not support individuals survival + reproduction)  Kin; Gene  Gene (Passed on to future generations via copies in relatives) o More copies of genes in your children than in you; kin will pass on your genes  Kin Selection – an evolutionary process by which genes replicate indirectly, via expression that promotes reproduction of kin bearing copied of the gene o Process working over whole populations and multiple generations leading to genetic factors that may be expressed in certain circumstances in motivation that can lead to self sacrifice, and even death, while promoting the survival and reproduction of kin o Leads to reproduction of individuals genes  Nepotism – favoring relatives over others; result from kin selection o Leads to replication of genes by behaviour that helps kin to reproduce o Eg/ Aunt has no children; will help sister and niece  Sexual Selection – mate choices alter trait frequency and saliency over generations in the opposite sex – often reflected in secondary sex characteristic o Eg/ Men have lower voice pitch, facial hair – may help in sexual selection o Differences in men and women; sexual dimorphism – women select which men reproduce, men select which women reproduce o Eg/ Peacock feathers o Traits that may not aid in survival; aid in reproduction  Coefficient of Relatedness – the degree of correlation to which genes are shared in related individuals  Friendships and helping individuals not related to you – humans can benefit from alliances and relationships outside their kin o Not kin selection  Fitness – individual reproductive success as measured by number of offspring o Inclusive Fitness – direct fitness plus summated contributions of individual to reproduction of kin as weighted by relatedness  Inclusive Fitness Maximation 1 PSYCH 3M03 o Organisms tend to strive to bring their genes into future generations by:  Pre-reproductive self-preservation  Successful reproduction  Behaviour that helps kin with survival and reproduction o Genes that support survival, reproduction and kin solicitude generally work to leave copies of themselves in future generations o Genes that do anything else generally tend to be eliminated (if there is still selection pressure on the trait) o Each new generation receives the subset of genes from the previous generations that succeeded in survival and reproduction  Cultural Evolution – changes in behaviour that occur over generations and even within generations without genetic change o Learning, imitation, language are all examples of culture evolution o Social pressure causes behaviour to change o Large cortex and capacity to learn  Evolutionary Lag – rapid cultural changes have occurred whereas genetic makeup changes very slowly; demands of the environment can outpace genetic
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