PSYCH 1X03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Metalinguistic Awareness, Language Acquisition Device, 6 Years

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
McMaster University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
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of 4
Chapter 4: Language
1. Language is symbolic
2. Involves arbitrary associations
o Allows various languages to use different sounds to label the same item
o Words whose sounds are associated with their meanings: onomatopoeia ( meow,
splash, hiccup)
3. Language is productive: small number of components to produce and understand a wide range
of symbols
o Made up of phonemes: smallest sound units of language (40 in English)
4. Language is rule governed
Section 2: structure of Language
Morphemes: Symbols of language
Symbols of language used to transmit information
Smallest units of sound that contain information
Lady 1 morph
Ladybug 2 morphs (lady/bug)
Bugs- 2 morphs ( bug/s)
Laptop computer- 4 morphs ( lap/top/compute/r)
Phonemes: the building blocks of symbols
Morpheme can be broken down into its constituent sounds
Drag 4 phonemes ( d/r/a/g)
Some are complicated like “c” ( s/k sound)
Consistent letter-to-sound correspondence, so that a given letter will always make the same
sound transparent orthographies
Syntax: the rules of constructing sentences
Grammar
Refers to the rules that govern how we put words together to form a sentence
Order in which words occur in a sentence ( subject-verb-object)
Gender assignment( French)
Automatically understood
Semantics: the meaning of it all
Refer to the meaning contained within
Can have meaning and be understood without syntax
Understand different meanings for a word depending on the context in which it is presented
o The word “present” can be used in different contexts
Section 3: Language Development
table 5.4 page 149
Universal phonemic sensitivity
o ability to discriminate between virtually all phonemes even before they learn language
o conditioned head turn procedure( playing two diff. Phonemes with speakers ba/da)
o process of losing the ability to distinguish between contrasts in sounds not used in
native language perceptual narrowing
o UPS is lost during first year of life
o When people talk to infants they tend to use higher pitch infant- directed speech
Foreign accent syndrome
o Damage in brocas area- difficulty in production of speech
o Damage in wernickes area- speak fluently, but speech makes no sense
o FAS- suffered from a head injury or stroke that damaged areas in the left hemisphere
involved in motor control of speech
Able to speak their native language but seem to have a foreign accent
Damage in the cerebellum
Early language skills
Still face procedure: adult looks at an infant while maintaining a non responsive neutral facial
expression
Cooing: begins at the ages of 2-4 months, making sounds that combine consonants with “oo”
and “ahh”
Pragmatics: allow children to communicate appropriately and affectively in a social situation
Babbling: 4-6 months
Holophrastic phase : where a single word is used to indicate the meaning of an entire sentence
( 10-18 months)
Naming explosion/ word spunt: acquire a vocab of about 250 words by the time they are 2
years old
Fast mapping : children learn the meaning following only 1 or 2 encounters with a new word
Around 6 years of age, the increase in vocabulary starts to slow down and most children have
mastered a large majority of the vocabulary of their language
1. Makes cooing sounds
2. Turns head
3. Imitates sounds
4. babbles
Receptive and expressive vocabulary
Expressive: words that children use to speak
Receptive: words that children can understand, but may not yet use
Receptive is developed before expressive vocabulary
Section 4: further characteristics of language development
Characteristics of early language
Overextensions: errors that involve using fairly specific word for a broader set of related items
o Car used as bus, truck, or wagon
o Open for door, light, peeling an orange
Undextensions: general term is used for only a very particular instance of an item
o Dog for only his dog not other dogs
Overextensions in production persist longer than overextensions in comprehension
o calls every vehicle a car, but can point out differences if asked
telegraphic speech: ( 18-24 months) use short phrases that contain only the most crucial info
they are trying to communicate
o “ more juice”
o “where teddy
Overregularizations: syntactic errors which involve using a grammatical rule too broadly
o Foots (feet)
o Goed( went)
o Mans (men)
o Runned (ran)
Higher language skills
Metalinguistic awareness: ability to reflect on language as a symbolic, rule- based
communication system
Identifying homonyms( word with several meanings) develop between 3-4 years of age
Sarcasm and irony- middle childhood ( 9-10)
Whorfian hypothesis
Very thoughts are shaped by language
Whorfian hypothesis/ sapir-whorf hypothesis: language may influence how we perceive and
experience the world
o Piraha language only count from 1, 2, many
o Contradict: uncle , father, brother differences

Document Summary

Symbols of language used to transmit information. Smallest units of sound that contain information. Morpheme can be broken down into its constituent sounds. Some are complicated like c ( s/k sound) Consistent letter-to-sound correspondence, so that a given letter will always make the same sound transparent orthographies. Refers to the rules that govern how we put words together to form a sentence. Order in which words occur in a sentence ( subject-verb-object) Can have meaning and be understood without syntax. Understand different meanings for a word depending on the context in which it is presented: the word present can be used in different contexts. Section 3: language development table 5. 4 page 149. Universal phonemic sensitivity: ability to discriminate between virtually all phonemes even before they learn language, conditioned head turn procedure( playing two diff. Able to speak their native language but seem to have a foreign accent.