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Chapter

FILM 240 Chapter Notes -Worldwideweb, Arpanet, Lowculture


Department
Film and Media
Course Code
FILM 240
Professor
Sidney Eve Matrix

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FILM%240%Definitions%
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Week%1:%Mass%Communication%(Ch.%1)%
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Analysis:%The$second$step$in$the$critical$process,$it$involves$discovering$significant$patterns$that$
emerge$from$the$description$stage.$
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Bloggers:%People$who$post$commentary$on$personal$and$political$opinion‐based$Web$sites.$
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Communication:%The$process$of$creating$symbol$systems$that$convey$information$and$meaning$(for$
example,$language,$Morse$code,$film,$and$computer$codes).$
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Cross%platform:%A$particular$business$model$that$involves$a$consolidation$of$various$media$holdings$$
such$as$cable$connection,$phone$service,$television$transmission$and$Internet$access$$under$one$
corporate$umbrella$(also$known$as$media%convergence)$
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Critical%process:%The$process$whereby$a$media‐literate$person$or$student$studying$mass$
communications$forms$and$practices$employs$the$techniques$of$description,$analysis,$interpretation,$
evaluation$and$engagement.$
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Culture:%The$symbols$of$expression$that$individuals,$groups$and$societies$use$to$make$sense$of$daily$
life$and$to$articulate$their$values;$a$process$that$delivers$the$values$of$a$society$through$products$or$
other$meaning‐making$forms.$
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Description:%The$first$step$in$the$critical$process,$it$involves$paying$close$attention,$taking$notes$and$
researching$the$cultural$product$to$be$studied.$
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Digital%Communication:%Images,$texts$and$sounds$that$use$pulses$of$electric$current$or$flashes$of$
laser$light$and$are$converted$(or$encoded)$into$electronic$signals$represented$as$varied$combinations$
of$binary$numbers,$usually$ones$and$zeros;$these$signals$are$then$reassembled$(decode)$as$a$precise$
reproduction$of$a$TV$picture,$a$magazine$article,$or$a$telephone$service.$
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Engagement:%The$fifth$step$in$the$critical$process,$it$involves$actively$working$to$create$a$media$world$
that$best$serves$democracy.$
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Evaluation:%The$fourth$step$in$the$critical$process,$it$involves$arriving$at$a$judgment$about$whether$a$
cultural(product(is(good,(bad,(or(mediocre;(this(requires(subordinating(one’s(personal(taste(to(the(
critical$assessment$resulting$from$the$first$three$stages$(description,$analysis,$interpretation).$
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Feedback:%Responses$from$receivers$to$the$senders$of$messages.$
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Gatekeepers:%Editors,$producers$and$other$media$managers$who$function$as$message$filters,$making$
decisions$about$what$types$of$messages$actually$get$produced$for$particular$audiences.$
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High%culture:%A(symbolic(expression(that(has(come(to(mean(“good(taste”;(often(supported(by(wealthy(
patrons$and$corporate$donors,$it$is$associated$with$fine$art$which$is$available$primary$in$museums$or$
theatres.$Examples$include$ballet,$the$symphony,$painting$and$classical$literature.$
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Interpretation:%$The(third(step(in(the(critical(process,(it(asks(and(answers(the(“What(does(that(mean?”(
and(the(“So(what?”(questions(about(one’s(findings.$
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Low%culture:%A$symbolic(expression(allegedly(aligned(with(the(questionable(tastes(of(the(“masses”,(
who(enjoy(the(commercial(‘junk’(circulated(by(the(mass(media,(such(as(soap(operas,(rock(music,(talk(
radio$shows,$comic$books$and$monster$truck$pulls.$
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Mass%communication:%The$process$of$designing$and$delivering$cultural$messages$and$stories$to$
diverse$audiences$through$mass$media$channels$as$old$as$the$book$and$as$new$as$the$Internet.$
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Mass%media:%The$cultural$industries$$the$channels$of$communication$$that$produce$and$distribute$
songs,$novels,$news,$movies,$online$computer$services$and$other$cultural$products$to$a$large$number$
of$people.$
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Mass%media%channel:%Newspapers,$books,$magazines,$radio,$movies,$television$or$the$Internet.$
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Media%convergence:%The$first$definition$involves$the$technological$merging$of$media$content$across$
various$platforms.$The$second$definition$(see$also$cross%platform),$describes$a$business$model$that$
consolidates$various$media$holdings$under$one$corporate$umbrella.$
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Media%Literacy:%An$understanding$of$the$mass$communications$process$through$the$development$of$
critical‐thinking$tools$$the$five$steps$in$the$process$$that$enable$a$person$to$become$more$engaged$as$
a$citizen$and$more$discerning$as$a$consumer$of$mass$media$products.$
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Messages:%The$texts,$images$and$sounds$transmitted$from$senders$to$receivers.$
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Modern%period:%The$term$describing$a$historical$era$spanning$the$time$from$the$rise$of$the$Industrial$
Revolution$in$the$18th$and$19th$centuries$to$the$present;$its$social$values$include$celebrating$the$
individual,$believing$in$rational$order,$working$efficiently$and$rejecting$tradition.$
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Narrative:%The$structure$underlying$most$media$products,$it$includes$two$components:$the$story$
(what$happens$to$whom)$and$the$discourse$(how$the$story$is$told).$
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Populism:%A(political(idea(that(tries(to(appeal(to(ordinary(people(by(contrasting(“the(people”(with(“the(
elite”.$
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Postmodern%period:%A$term$describing$the$contemporary$historical$era$spanning$the$1960s$to$the$
present;$its$social$values$include$opposing$hierarchy,$diversifying$and$recycling$culture,$questioning$
scientific$reasoning$and$embracing$paradox.$
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Progressive%Era:%A$period$of$political$and$social$reform$that$lasted$from$the$1890s$to$the$1920s.$
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Receivers:%The$targets$of$messages$crafted$by$senders.$
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Selective%exposure:%The$phenomenon$whereby$audiences$seek$messages$and$meanings$that$
correspond$to$their$existing$beliefs$and$values.$
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Senders:%The$authors,$producers,$agencies$and$organizations$that$transmit$messages$to$receivers.$$
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Social%media:%Digital$applications$that$allow$people$worldwide$to$have$conversations,$share$common$$
interests$and$generate$their$own$media$content$online.$$
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Week%2:%Media%Effects%(Ch.%14)%
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AgendaQsetting:%A$media‐research$argument$that$says$when$the$mass$media$pay$attention$to$
particular$events$or$issues,$they$determine$$that$is,$set$the$agenda$for$$the$major$topics$of$discussion$
for$individuals$and$society.$
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Audience%studies:%Cultural$studies$research$that$focuses$on$how$people$use$and$interpret$cultural$
content.$Also$known$as$reader‐response$research.$
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Content%analysis:%In$social$science$research,$a$method$for$studying$and$coding$media$texts$and$
programs.$
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Correlations:%Observed$associations$between$two$variables.$
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Cultural%studies:%In$media$research,$the$approaches$that$try$to$understand$how$the$media$and$
culture$are$tied$to$the$actual$patterns$of$communication$used$in$daily$life;$these$studies$focus$on$how$
people$make$meanings,$apprehend$reality,$and$order$experience$through$the$use$of$stories$and$
symbols.$
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Cultivation%effect:%The$idea$that$heavy$television$viewing$leads$individuals$to$perceive$reality$in$ways$
that$are$consistent$with$the$portrayals$they$see$on$television.$
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Experiments:%In$regard$to$the$mass$media,$research$that$isolates$some$aspect$of$content,$suggests$a$
hypothesis(and(manipulates(variables(to(discover(a(particular(medium’(s(impact(on(attitudes,(
emotions$or$behaviour.$
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HypodermicQneedle%model:%An$early$model$in$mass$communication$research$that$attempted$to$
explain$media$effects$by$arguing$that$the$media$shoot$their$powerful$effects$directly$into$unsuspecting$
or$weak$audiences;$sometimes$called$the$bullet$theory$or$direct$effects$model.$
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Hypotheses:%Tentative$general$statements$that$predict$a$relationship$between$a$dependent$variable$
and$an$independent$variable.$
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Longitudinal%studies:%A$term$used$for$research$studies$that$are$conducted$over$long$periods$of$time$
and$often$rely$on$large$government$and$academic$survey$databases.$
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Media%effects%research:%The$mainstream$tradition$in$mass$communication$research,$it$attempts$to$
understand,$explain,$and$predict$the$impact$$or$effects$$of$the$mass$media$on$individuals$and$society.$
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MinimalQeffects%model:%A$mass$communication$research$model$based$on$tightly$controlled$
experiments$and$survey$findings;$it$argues$that$the$mass$media$have$limited$effects$on$audiences,$
reinforcing$existing$behaviours$and$attitudes$rather$than$changing$them.$
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Political%economy%studies:%An$area$of$academic$study$that$specifically$examines$interconnections$
among$economic$interests,$political$power$and$how$that$power$is$used.$
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Propaganda%analysis:%The(study(of(propaganda’s(effectiveness(in(influencing(and(mobilizing(public(
opinion.$
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PseudoQpolls:%Typically$call‐in,$online$or$person‐in‐the‐street$polls$that$the$news$media$use$to$
address(a(“question(of$the(day”.$
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