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GNDS 120 (16)


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Gender Studies
GNDS 120
J.Scott Matthews

Representation -process of where meaning is constructed -description or depiction of some aspect of reality -reflects positions and interests -controlled by who controls the media -Standpoint Theory -not neutral Male Gaze- used in the media when the camera puts the audience into perspective of a heterosexual man, and objectifies women’s body -in the media, women are viewed as objects Contemporary Popular Culture- consumer culture Capitalism- creating and then fulfilling consumer needs for products and services Pop Culture- sells the idea of what men and women are like and shows how to become them through consumption of goods Reify- to treat or regard an abstract or socially constructed concept as if it’s the real material thing -black men and women are often portrayed in the media as sex objects or slaves -Asian and Latino’s are seen as exotic sexual objects Education- process of obtaining knowledge that encourages people to critically question cultural representations When analyzing representations consider: -historical and social context -postionality -agency and power relations at work -the text we read and who writes it -teach women that they are the manger of consumption not just housewives-> produced by capital -sense of self is mobilized by consumerism -cultural representation are critical of race and gender -we are taught consumer narratives and to reproduce them -negative racialized women are continuously oppressed -to legitimize media: -critical thinking -personal experiences -external sources -apply theories learned from school -repetition-> consistent over time and in different sources -always assume it’s inaccurate-> no way of truly knowing-> skepticism Still Struggling Continuum of Violence-Liz Kelly -interconnected and targeted violence against females Reproductive Rights -letting women choose to have an abortion or not -letting women choose if they want children or not -access to basic health care -females have little capacity to negotiate safer sex -cultural social constructions of femininity as sexually submissive, loyal, and virginal with gendered power relations between heterosexual partners remain strong barriers to using condoms-> trying to negotiate leads to violence -social construction of masculinity has led to risky behaviours by males such as excessive alcohol use, drug use, unprotected sex, and multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships-> leads to an increase risk of HIV and STI -feminist movements offer powerful spaces for women to work in concert with men and bring social change that will benefit everybody and to challenge how we think Don’t Men Count Too? -masculinity is socially constructed through homosocial networks-> male networks that exclude women Dominant forms of masculinity in Western culture: Hero- intelligent, easily outwitting their opponents, honourable, trustworthy, respected, virile, always rewarded revered by friends and foes, gendered, must protects and saves the heroine Warrior- connected to the hero, protector of women, children, and nations, strong, invulnerable, aggressive powerful, threatening, violent legitimizes the processes of conquest and globalization Sports Hero- athletic, active, skilled, powerful, muscular, successful, handsome, virile, rich, famous, every woman’s ideal, ultimate aspiration of all men, competitive, measures their success against the team captains, star players, and coaching cues, bad behaviour such as violence against women Entrepreneur- intelligent, hardworking, aggressive, knowledgeable, ultimate provider since he provides jobs to workers and boosts local and national economy, competitive, smart, well-educated, tough-minded, strategic, risk-taking, ruthless, cut-throat dealmaker, yields power, accumulates wealth, has designer suits, fast cars, ostentatious homes, trophy wives, luck, unearned eEmily Martin-studies biology of human reproduction -found that scientific accounts are shaped by cultural codes of masculinity and femininity -sperms are valuable, strong, and aggressive like a hero, and aggressive in enemy territory to capture and penetrate the passive, lazy egg like the warrior-> masculinity -eggs are disposable, passive, and vulnerable and waits for the sperm to make her useful by fertilizing her-> femininity Hegemonic Masculinity-white, middle-class, heterosexual, and
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