PSYC 235 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Dyssomnia, Parasomnia, Psychoeducation

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7 Apr 2015

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Ch. 8 – Eating and Sleep Disorders
Eating Disorders: An Overview
- anorexia has the highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder reviewed in
this book
- 90% women, most of good socio-economic status
- strongest influences: socio-cultural (not so much psychological or biological)
Bulimia Nervosa
- eating large amount of food (this experience must feel as out of control), followed
by purging techniques
- purging techniques: vomiting, laxatives, excessive exercise, fasting between
- psychological criteria: beliefs that greater success and self-esteem are determined
by weight and body shape
- shame in their lack of control and secrecy
- more common than anorexia
- characterized into 2 subtypes:
opurging type: ex. exercising
onon-purging type: ex. Fasting (rare)
- Medical Consequences:
oSalivary gland enlargement  makes face chubby
oErosion of dental enamel on front teeth
olaxative use can lead to intestinal problems, severe constipation, or
permanent colon damage
oMay upset chemical balance of bodily fluids, including sodium and
potassium levels (called electrolyte imbalance)
Untreated, this can lead to renal failure and cardiac arrhythmia
(disrupted heartbeat)
- Associated Psychological Disorders:
oUsually comorbid with anxiety or mood disorders (75%)
oBulimia seems related to impulse control disorders, borderline personality,
substance use disorders, mood disorders and anxiety disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
- often don’t see they have a problem
- excessive exercise is very common (70%)
- Clinical Description:
oIntense fear of obesity and relentlessly pursuer thinness
oSeldom seek treatment on their own
oTwo subtypes:
Restricting type: diet to limit calorie intake
Binge-eating/purging type: rely on purging
Not bulimia because binge on less and purge more
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- Medical Consequences
oCessation of menstruation, dry skin, brittle hair/nails, sensitivity to cold,
cardiovascular problems
oIf vomiting involved, electrolyte imbalance and resulting cardiac and
kidney problems can result
- Associated Psychological Disorders:
oAnxiety and mood disorders. OCD and substance abuse are frequent
Binge-Eating Disorder
- binge eating, often obese, a third eat to alleviate “bad moods”
- etiology differs from obesity
Cross-Cultural Considerations
- black adolescent girls tend to have less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian
adolescent girls
- western society is a huge influence
- eating disorders increasing in non-western cultures
- women in all cultures concerned about their body’s appearance, but different
cultures focus on different areas of the body
Developmental Considerations
- puberty in girls = increase in weight and fatty tissue
- strongest causes = social and cultural
Social Dimensions:
- risk of developing eating disorder directly related to how much one “buys in” to
media messages
- if your friends tend to use extreme dieting or weight-loss techniques, there is a
greater chance that you will too
- cultural pressures to be thin
Dietary Restraint:
- dieting and weight loss pressures highly increase chance of developing eating
Family Influences:
- families of anorexics tend to attribute their problems to other people to avoid this
type of communication among themselves
- mothers tend to be very focused on appearances and likely diet themselves. Also
more perfectionist
Biological Dimensions:
- eating disorders run in families
- certain personality traits might predispose someone to an eating disorder 
perfectionism, emotional instability, poor impulse control
- low levels of serotonin associated with binge eating
- excessive exercise can cause a los of appetite, leading to anorexia
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