Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
Queen's (4,000)
PSY (1,000)
Chapter 9

PSYC 251 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Deconditioning, Social Cognitive Theory, Age 13

Course Code
PSYC 251
Stanka A Fitneva

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 14 pages of the document.
Chapter 9
Psychoanalytic Theories
Sigmund Freuds theory and life-span developmental theory of Erik Erikson
Views of Children’s Nature
Development largely driven by biological maturation
Freud- behaviour motivated by the need to satisfy basic drives, most unconscious
and individuals often have the smallest understanding of them
Erikson- driven by series of developmental crises related to age and biological
maturation, to achieve development, the individual must resolve these crises
Central Developmental Issues
Continuity/discontinuity, individual differences, nature and nurture all play big
roles in psychoanalytic theory
Both are stage theories, but stress continuity of individual differences (early
experiences have a major impact on subsequent development)
Emphasis on biological underpinnings of developmental stages and how they
interact with experience
Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development
Found that often patients had physical problems that had no apparent physical
cause, and began attributing them to unconscious feelings such as guilt, anxiety,
Freud became convinced that the majority of his patients emotional problems
originated in their early childhood relationships, especially with parents
Basic Features of Freud’s Theory
Thought that even young children have a sexual nature that motivates their
behaviour and relationships
Proposed that children pass through universal developmental stages and in each
stage psychic energy becomes focused in different erogenous zones
Believed that in each stage children encounter conflicts related to an erogenous
zone and their success/failure in resolving the conflicts affects their development
Psychic Energy: Biology based, instinctual drives that fuel behaviour, thoughts
and feelings
Erogenous Zones: Areas of the body that become erotically sensitive in successive
stages of development (mouth, anus, genitals)
The Developmental Process
When babies are born, they have a drive for hunger that creates tension as they do
not know how to reduce it, express it through crying, the act of being fed and
nursed is satisfying
Id: Instinctual drives with which the infant is born with, totally unconscious,
source of psychic energy, earliest and most primitive personality structure,
operates with the goal of seeking pleasure (ruled by pleasure principle), the id
wants it now, source of psychic energy throughout life, results in selfish/impulsive
behaviour with mediate gratification and little regard for consequences

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Oral Stage: First stage in Freuds theory, occurs in the child’s first year, primary
source of satisfaction is oral activity (sucking, eating), this starts the baby’s
feelings for their mother as the “strongest love-object” and a source of security
Sense of security provided by mother also comes with costs, infants pay for this
security with a fear of loss of love
Ego: Second personality structure, rational, logical, problem solving, arises out of
the need to resolve conflicts between the id’s demands for immediate gratification
and the restraints imposed by the external world, operates under the reality
Anal Stage: Second stage in Freuds theory, lasts from age 1-3, primary source of
pleasure comes from defecation
Phallic Stage: Third stage, lasts from age 3-6, sexual pleasure is focused on
genitalia, children become interested in private parts of themselves and parents
and playmates, derive pleasure from masturbation
During phallic stage, they begin to identify with their same-sex parent, giving rise
to gender differences in attitudes and behaviour, beginning with the discovery of
the difference of having/lacking a penis
Boys take a strong interest in their penis and girls begin to resent the fact that they
do not have one, penis envy
Superego: Third personality structure, consists of internalized moral standards, in
order to cope with intense sexual desires during the phallic stage, the superego
develops as a conscience, controls behaviour on the basis of right and wrong
Superego is based on the child’s internalization (process of adopting as one’s won
attributes and beliefs, and standards of another person), or adopting of the parents’
rules and standards for acceptable/unacceptable behaviour
For boys, the path to superego development is through the resolution of the
Oedipus complex
Oedipus Complex: Conflict experienced by boys in the phallic period because of
their sexual desire for their mother and their fear of retaliation by their father,
wants an exclusive relationship from mother
In Freuds account of the Oedipal conflict, the boy’s ego protects him through
repression (banishing his dangerous feelings to the unconscious), as a
consequence the child can develop infantile amnesia (lack of memories from our
first few years) as well as an increase in identification with the father as a way of
striving to be like him and an internalization of the father’s values
Girls experience a similar, but less intense conflict in the Electra Complex
Electra Complex: Experienced by girls in the phallic stage when they develop
unacceptable romantic feelings for their father and see their mother as a rival,
results in their developing a weaker conscience than boys do
Latency Period: Fourth stage, lasts from ages 6-12, sexual energy gets
channelled into socially acceptable activities including intellectual and social
Genital Stage: Fifth and final stage, beginning in adolescence in which sexual
maturation is complete and sexual intercourse becomes a major goal, sexual

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

energy that has been kept in check for several years comes back with full force,
ideally the individual has developed a strong ego that facilitates coping with
reality and a superego that is neither weak nor too strong
Freud believed that healthy development culminates in the ability to invest in
oneself and derive pleasure from both love and work
If needs were unsatisfied during any of the fundamental stages the child will
become fixated on those needs in a continuous attempt to statisfy them and reolve
If an infants oral gratification was not satisfied during the oral stage, the infant
my engage in excessive eating, nail-biting, smoking
If toddlers are subjected to harsh toilet training during the anal stage they may be
clean freaks, psychologically rigid or extremely sloppy and lax
Passage of the childs stages through psychosexual development shapes the
individual’s personality for life
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
Accepted basic elements of Freud’s theory, but added social factors, cultural
influences and contemporary issues
His theory is called the theory of psycosocial development
The Developmental Process
8 stages of development, each stage is characterized by a specific crisis or a set of
developmental issues that one must resolve
If the dominant issue is not resolved, the person will continue to struggle with it
Brief summary of the stages although it is only the first 5
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (First Year)
- Corresponds with Freuds oral stage
- Infant is developing a sense of trust
- If mother is warm, consistent and reliable the infant learns that she can be
- If the ability to trust others is not developed, the infant will have difficulty
forming intimate relationships later in life
Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (Ages 1-3 ½ )
- Corresponds with Freuds oral stage
- Challenge is to achieve a strong sense of autonomy while adjusting to increasing
social demands
- Dramatic increase in the child’s competence (motor skills, cognitive abilities,
language…etc) fosters the child’s desires to make choices and decisions for
- Infants ability to explore the environment by themselves changes family
- If parents provide a supportive atmosphere that allows children to achieve self-
control without loss of self-esteem, children gain a sense of autonomy
- If children are subject to punishment/ridicule they may come to doubt their
abilities or feel shame
Initiative Versus Guilt (Ages 4-6)
- Time when children identify with and learn from parents
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version