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Chapter 24

BLG 10A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 24: Sex Steroid, Complete Protein, Olestra

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Emily Agard

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Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation
Major Nutrients
Kilocalorie (= calorie): amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of
water 1 degree Celsius
Diet & Nutrition
Nutrient: substance in food the body uses to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair
Major nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water (not considered nutrient) - bulk amounts
‘Minor’ nutrients: vitamins, minerals – minute amounts
Healthy Eating Pyramid = six major food groups, including subdivisions
- Whole-grain foods
- Fruits and vegetables
- Vegetable oils instead of animal fats
- Restrictions: red meat, sweets, starchy food
MyPlate = food guide – USDA => healthy proportions
Essential nutrients = cannot be made fast enough to meet the body’s needs, so our diet must
provide them (45-50 molecules) – chemicals that must be obtained from outside sources
Dietary Sources
- Carbohydrates => plants [except milk sugar & glycogen in meats]
- Sugars => fruits, sugar cane, sugar beets, honey, milk
- Polysaccharide starch => grains and vegetables
- Fiber =>
ocellulose (not digested by humans, but = insoluble fiber => bulk of stool and
facilitates defecation
osoluble fiber = pectin (in apples/citrus fruits) = reduces blood cholesterol
Uses in the Body
- glucose => fuel by body cells to produce ATP
- carbohydrate digestion => fructose & galactose <= liver converts them to glucose
before they enter general circulation
oneurons and red blood cells rely on glucose
lack of blood glucose = depress brain function => neuron death
oexcess glucose that is not needed for ATP synthesis = converted as
glycogen/fat by the liver = later use
- Fats = energy sources
-*Meager = synthesize nucleic acids and a variety of sugars are attached to
externally facing plasma membrane proteins/lipids
Dietary Requirements
- Can be healthy with a wide variations of carbohydrate intake
- 100 g/day = maintain a normal/adequate blood glucose level
- Dietary allowance: 130 g/day = amount needed to fuel the brain, not daily activities
- 45-65% of total calorie intake
- Less than 50 g/day = tissue/fat is used for energy fuel
- “Empty calories” – concentrated energy sources – candy, soft drinks; > complex
carbohydrates = nutritional deficiencies
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